+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Transcription from bacteriophage lambda pR promoter is regulated independently and antagonistically by DksA and ppGpp

Transcription from bacteriophage lambda pR promoter is regulated independently and antagonistically by DksA and ppGpp

Nucleic Acids Research 37(20): 6655-6664

The stringent response effector, guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), adjust gene expression and physiology in bacteria, by affecting the activity of various promoters. RNA polymerase-interacting protein, DksA, was proposed to be the co-factor of ppGpp effects; however, there are reports suggesting independent roles of these regulators. Bacteriophage lambda major lytic promoter, pR, is down-regulated by the stringent response and ppGpp. Here, we present evidence that DksA significantly stimulates pR-initiated transcription in vitro in the reconstituted system. DksA is also indispensable for pR activity in vivo. DksA-mediated activation of pR-initiated transcription is predominant over ppGpp effects in the presence of both regulators in vitro. The possible role of the opposite regulation by ppGpp and DksA in lambda phage development is discussed. The major mechanism of DksA-mediated activation of transcription from pR involves facilitating of RNA polymerase binding to the promoter region, which results in more productive transcription initiation. Thus, our results provide evidence for the first promoter inhibited by ppGpp that can be stimulated by the DksA protein both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, DksA role could be not only independent but antagonistic to ppGpp in transcription regulation.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 056635825

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 19759216

DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkp676

Related references

The dksA promoter is negatively feedback regulated by DksA and ppGpp. Molecular Microbiology 80(5): 1337-1348, 2011

The guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) alarmone, DksA and promoter affinity for RNA polymerase in regulation of sigma-dependent transcription. Molecular Microbiology 60(3): 749-764, 2006

Guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp)-mediated inhibition of the activity of the bacteriophage lambda pR promoter in Escherichia coli. Molecular & General Genetics 257(4): 490-495, 1998

Suppression of a dnaKJ deletion by multicopy dksA results from non-feedback-regulated transcripts that originate upstream of the major dksA promoter. Journal of Bacteriology 194(6): 1437-1446, 2012

sigma54-promoter discrimination and regulation by ppGpp and DksA. Journal of Biological Chemistry 284(2): 828-838, 2008

Inhibition of transcription starting from bacteriophage lambda pR promoter during the stringent response in Escherichia coli: implications for lambda DNA replication. Acta Biochimica Polonica 42(2): 233-239, 1995

Bacterial global regulators DksA/ppGpp increase fidelity of transcription. Nucleic Acids Research 43(3): 1529-1536, 2015

A hyper-mutant of the unusual sigma70-Pr promoter bypasses synergistic ppGpp/DksA co-stimulation. Nucleic Acids Research 39(14): 5853-5865, 2011

New insights into the regulatory mechanisms of ppGpp and DksA on Escherichia coli RNA polymerase-promoter complex. Nucleic Acids Research 43(10): 5249-5262, 2015

Rho-dependent termination of transcription. II. Kinetics of mRNA elongation during transcription from the bacteriophage lambda PR promoter. Journal of Biological Chemistry 258(15): 9565-9574, 1983

DksA and ppGpp directly regulate transcription of the Escherichia coli flagellar cascade. Molecular Microbiology 74(6): 1368-1379, 2010

Regulation through the secondary channel--structural framework for ppGpp-DksA synergism during transcription. Cell 118(3): 297-309, 2004

Similar and divergent effects of ppGpp and DksA deficiencies on transcription in Escherichia coli. Journal of Bacteriology 191(10): 3226-3236, 2009