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Transcription from bacteriophage lambda pR promoter is regulated independently and antagonistically by DksA and ppGpp



Transcription from bacteriophage lambda pR promoter is regulated independently and antagonistically by DksA and ppGpp



Nucleic Acids Research 37(20): 6655-6664



The stringent response effector, guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), adjust gene expression and physiology in bacteria, by affecting the activity of various promoters. RNA polymerase-interacting protein, DksA, was proposed to be the co-factor of ppGpp effects; however, there are reports suggesting independent roles of these regulators. Bacteriophage lambda major lytic promoter, pR, is down-regulated by the stringent response and ppGpp. Here, we present evidence that DksA significantly stimulates pR-initiated transcription in vitro in the reconstituted system. DksA is also indispensable for pR activity in vivo. DksA-mediated activation of pR-initiated transcription is predominant over ppGpp effects in the presence of both regulators in vitro. The possible role of the opposite regulation by ppGpp and DksA in lambda phage development is discussed. The major mechanism of DksA-mediated activation of transcription from pR involves facilitating of RNA polymerase binding to the promoter region, which results in more productive transcription initiation. Thus, our results provide evidence for the first promoter inhibited by ppGpp that can be stimulated by the DksA protein both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, DksA role could be not only independent but antagonistic to ppGpp in transcription regulation.

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Accession: 056635825

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 19759216

DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkp676


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