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Understanding roles of porcine small intestinal submucosa in urinary bladder regeneration: identification of variable regenerative characteristics of small intestinal submucosa

Understanding roles of porcine small intestinal submucosa in urinary bladder regeneration: identification of variable regenerative characteristics of small intestinal submucosa

Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews 20(1): 73-83

Neuropathic bladders are the result from damages to the central or peripheral nervous system, and ultimately may require surgical reconstruction to increase bladder volumes and to reduce the risk of damages to the kidneys. Surgical reconstruction through bladder augmentation has traditionally been practiced using a segment of the ileum, colon, or stomach from the patient through enterocystoplasty. However, the use of gastrointestinal segments can lead to serious adverse consequences. Porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS), a xenogeneic, acellular, biocompatable, biodegradable, and collagen-based bioscaffold is best known to encourage bladder regeneration without ex vivo cell seeding before implantation in various experimental and preclinical animal models. Although it has been demonstrated that SIS supports bladder cell growth in vitro, and SIS-regenerated bladders are histologically and functionally indistinguishable from normal functional tissues, clinical utilization of SIS for bladder augmentation has been hampered by inconsistent preclinical results. Several variables in SIS, such as the age of pigs, the region of the small intestine, and method of sterilization, can have different physical properties, biochemical characteristics, inflammatory cell infiltration, and regenerative capacity due to cellular responses in vitro and in vivo. These parameters are particularly important for bladder regeneration due to its specific biological function in urine storage. Clinical application of SIS for surgical bladder reconstruction may require graft materials to be prepared from a specific region of the small intestine, or to be further formulated or processed to provide uniform physical and biochemical properties for consistent, complete, and functional bladder regeneration.

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Accession: 056752566

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PMID: 23777420

DOI: 10.1089/ten.teb.2013.0126

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