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Urothelial dysfunction and increased suburothelial inflammation of urinary bladder are involved in patients with upper urinary tract urolithiasis--clinical and immunohistochemistry study



Urothelial dysfunction and increased suburothelial inflammation of urinary bladder are involved in patients with upper urinary tract urolithiasis--clinical and immunohistochemistry study



Plos one 9(10): E110754



To investigate the urothelial dysfunction and inflammation of urinary bladder in patients with upper urinary tract (UUT) urolithiasis through the results of cystoscopic hydrodistension and immunohistochemistry study. Ninety-one patients with UUT urolithiasis underwent cystoscopic hydrodistension before the stone surgery. Immunofluorescence staining of E-cadherin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), tryptase (mast cell activation), and TUNEL (urothelial apoptosis) were performed in 42 patients with glomerulations after hydrodistension, 10 without glomerulations, and 10 controls. Of the 91 patients, 62 (68.2%) developed glomerulations after hydrodistension. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were present in 53.8% patients, in whom significantly smaller maximal anesthetic bladder capacity (MBC) was noted. Patients with middle or lower 1/3 ureteral stones had a significantly higher glomerulation rate (88.6% vs. 55.4%, p<0.01) and lower MBC (618.4 ± 167.6 vs. 701.2 ± 158.4 ml, p = 0.027) than those with upper 1/3 ureteral or renal stones. Patients with UUT urolithiasis had significantly lower expression of E-cadherin (26.2 ± 14.8 vs. 42.4 ± 16.7) and ZO-1 (5.16 ± 4.02 vs. 11.02 ± 5.66); and higher suburothelial mast cell (13.3 ± 6.8 vs. 1.3 ± 1.2) and apoptotic cell (2.6 ± 2.5 vs. 0.1 ± 0.3) numbers than in controls (all p<0.01). Urothelial dysfunction and increased suburothelial inflammation and apoptosis are highly prevalent in the bladders of UUT urolithiasis patients, indicating inflammation cross-talk between UUT and urinary bladder. Patients with UUT urolithiaisis concomitant with LUTS had a smaller MBC, which may explain the presence of irritative bladder symptoms.

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Accession: 056788903

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PMID: 25329457

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110754


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