Viscero-visceral hyperalgesia: characterization in different clinical models
Giamberardino, M.A.; Costantini, R.; Affaitati, G.; Fabrizio, A.; Lapenna, D.; Tafuri, E.; Mezzetti, A.
Pain 151(2): 307-322
Co-existing algogenic conditions in two internal organs in the same patient may mutually enhance pain symptoms (viscero-visceral hyperalgesia). The present study assessed this phenomenon in different models of visceral interaction. In a prospective evaluation, patients with: (a) coronary artery disease (CAD)+gallstone (Gs) (common sensory projection: T5); (b) irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)+dysmenorrhea (Dys) (T10-L1); (c) dysmenorrhea/endometriosis+urinary calculosis (Cal)(T10-L1); and (d) gallstone+left urinary calculosis (Gs+LCal) (unknown common projection) were compared with patients with CAD, Gs, IBS, Dys or Cal only, for spontaneous symptoms (number/intensity of pain episodes) over comparable time periods and for referred symptoms (muscle hyperalgesia; pressure/electrical pain thresholds) from each visceral location. In patients' subgroups, symptoms were also re-assessed after treatment of each condition or after no treatment. (a) CAD+Gs presented more numerous/intense angina/biliary episodes and more referred muscle chest/abdominal hyperalgesia than CAD or Gs; cardiac revascularization or cholecystectomy also reduced biliary or cardiac symptoms, respectively (0.001