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A Comparative Study Between the Antibacterial Effect of Nisin and Nisin-Loaded Chitosan/Alginate Nanoparticles on the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Samples

Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins 2(4): 258-266
A Comparative Study Between the Antibacterial Effect of Nisin and Nisin-Loaded Chitosan/Alginate Nanoparticles on the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Samples
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of nisin-loaded chitosan/alginate nanoparticles as a novel antibacterial delivery vehicle. The nisin-loaded nanoparticles were prepared using colloidal dispersion of the chitosan/alginate polymers in the presence of nisin. After the preparation of the nisin-loaded nanoparticles, their physicochemical properties such as size, shape, and zeta potential of the formulations were studied using scanning electron microscope and nanosizer instruments, consecutively. FTIR and differential scanning calorimetery studies were performed to investigate polymer-polymer or polymer-protein interactions. Next, the release kinetics and entrapment efficiency of the nisin-loaded nanoparticles were examined to assess the application potential of these formulations as a candidate vector. For measuring the antibacterial activity of the nisin-loaded nanoparticles, agar diffusion and MIC methods were employed. The samples under investigation for total microbial counts were pasteurized and raw milks each of which contained the nisin-loaded nanoparticles and inoculated Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 19117 at 10(6) CFU/mL), pasteurized and raw milks each included free nisin and S. aureus (10(6) CFU/mL), and pasteurized and raw milks each had S. aureus (10(6) CFU/mL) in as control. Total counts of S. aureus were measured after 24 and 48 h for the pasteurized milk samples and after the time intervals of 0, 6, 10, 14, 18, and 24 h for the raw milk samples, respectively. According to the results, entrapment efficiency of nisin inside of the nanoparticles was about 90-95%. The average size of the nanoparticles was 205 nm, and the average zeta potential of them was -47 mV. In agar diffusion assay, an antibacterial activity (inhibition zone diameter, at 450 IU/mL) about 2 times higher than that of free nisin was observed for the nisin-loaded nanoparticles. MIC of the nisin-loaded nanoparticles (0.5 mg/mL) was about four times less than that of free nisin (2 mg/mL). Evaluation of the kinetic of the growth of S. aureus based on the total counts in the raw and pasteurized milks revealed that the nisin-loaded nanoparticles were able to inhibit more effectively the growth of S. aureus than free nisin during longer incubation periods. In other words, the decrease in the population of S. aureus for free nisin and the nisin-loaded nanoparticles in pasteurized milk was the same after 24 h of incubation while lessening in the growth of S. aureus was more marked for the nisin-loaded nanoparticles than the samples containing only free nisin after 48 h of incubation. Although the same growth reduction profile in S. aureus was noticed for free nisin and the nisin-loaded nanoparticles in the raw milk up to 14 h of incubation, after this time the nisin-loaded nanoparticles showed higher growth inhibition than free nisin. Since, generally, naked nisin has greater interactions with the ingredients present in milk samples in comparison with the protected nisin. Therefore, it is concluded that the antibacterial activity of nisin naturally decreases more during longer times of incubation than the protected nisin with the chitosan/alginate nanoparticles. Consequently, this protection increases and keeps antibacterial efficiency of nisin in comparison with free nisin during longer times of storage. These results can pave the way for further research and use of these nanoparticles as new antimicrobial agents in various realms of dairy products.

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Accession: 057024121

PMID: 26781321

DOI: 10.1007/s12602-010-9047-2

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