A Digital Lock-in Amplifier for use at Temperatures of up to 200 °C
Cheng, J.; Xu, Y.; Wu, L.; Wang, G.
ISSN/ISBN: 1424-8220 PMID: 27845710 DOI: 10.3390/s16111899
Weak voltage signals cannot be reliably measured using currently available logging tools when these tools are subject to high-temperature (up to 200 °C) environments for prolonged periods. In this paper, we present a digital lock-in amplifier (DLIA) capable of operating at temperatures of up to 200 °C. The DLIA contains a low-noise instrument amplifier and signal acquisition and the corresponding signal processing electronics. The high-temperature stability of the DLIA is achieved by designing system-in-package (SiP) and multi-chip module (MCM) components with low thermal resistances. An effective look-up-table (LUT) method was developed for the lock-in amplifier algorithm, to decrease the complexity of the calculations and generate less heat than the traditional way. The performance of the design was tested by determining the linearity, gain, Q value, and frequency characteristic of the DLIA between 25 and 200 °C. The maximal nonlinear error in the linearity of the DLIA working at 200 °C was about 1.736% when the equivalent input was a sine wave signal with an amplitude of between 94.8 and 1896.0 nV and a frequency of 800 kHz. The tests showed that the DLIA proposed could work effectively in high-temperature environments up to 200 °C.