Accumulation of Metals in Soils, Groundwater and Edible Parts of Crops Grown Under Long-Term Irrigation with Sewage Mixed Industrial Effluents
Yadav, R.K.; Minhas, P.S.; Lal, K.; Chaturvedi, R.K.; Yadav, G.; Verma, T.P.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 95(2): 200-206
Farmers in developing countries irrigate crops using raw urban and industrial effluents with consequent risks from metal contamination. Therefore, soils, crops and groundwater from an effluent irrigation use site were assessed for Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb. Total and available contents of metals in soil followed the order Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd. Crops accumulated more Pb, followed by Cd, Ni and Cr. Pb exceeded the permissible limit with wastewater irrigation only, but Cd exceeded the limit even with combined irrigations of wastewater and groundwater. Among crops, sugar beet assimilated highest Cd (3.14 μg g(-1)) and Pb (6.42 μg g(-1)) concentrations. Legumes accumulated more metals than cereals. Long-term use of wastewater and its conjunctive use with groundwater led to toxic accumulations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. Cd with higher availability and mobility indices and lower toxicity limit, posed the maximum risk of food-chain contamination.