EurekaMag
+ Most Popular
Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in China
Mammalian lairs in paleo ecological studies and palynology
Studies on technological possibilities in utilization of anhydrous milk fat for production of recombined butter-like products
Should right-sided fibroelastomas be operated upon?
Large esophageal lipoma
Apoptosis in the mammalian thymus during normal histogenesis and under various in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions
Poissons characoides nouveaux ou non signales de l'Ilha do Bananal, Bresil
Desensitizing efficacy of Colgate Sensitive Maximum Strength and Fresh Mint Sensodyne dentifrices
Administration of fluid by subcutaneous infusion: revival of a forgotten method
Tundra mosquito control - an impossible dream?
Schizophrenia for primary care providers: how to contribute to the care of a vulnerable patient population
Geochemical pattern analysis; method of describing the Southeastern limestone regional aquifer system
Incidence of low birth weights in a hospital of Mexico City
Tabanidae
Graded management intensity of grassland systems for enhancing floristic diversity
Microbiology and biochemistry of cheese and fermented milk
The ember tetra: a new pygmy characid tetra from the Rio das Mortes, Brazil, Hyphessobrycon amandae sp. n. (Pisces, Characoidei)
Risk factors of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients after coronary artery intervention
Renovation of onsite domestic wastewater in a poorly drained soil
Observations of the propagation velocity and formation mechanism of burst fractures caused by gunshot
Systolic blood pressure in a population of infants in the first year of life: the Brompton study
Haematological studies in rats fed with metanil yellow
Studies on pasteurellosis. I. A new species of Pasteurella encountered in chronic fowl cholera
Dormancy breaking and germination of Acacia salicina Lindl. seeds
therapy of lupus nephritis. a two-year prospective study

Chemical Composition and Evaluation of Nicotine, Tobacco Alkaloids, pH, and Selected Flavors in E-Cigarette Cartridges and Refill Solutions


Chemical Composition and Evaluation of Nicotine, Tobacco Alkaloids, pH, and Selected Flavors in E-Cigarette Cartridges and Refill Solutions



Nicotine and Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 17(10): 1270-1278



ISSN/ISBN: 1462-2203

PMID: 25636907

DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntu279

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing dramatically in developed countries, but little is known about these rapidly evolving products. This study analyzed and evaluated the chemical composition including nicotine, tobacco alkaloids, pH, and flavors in 36 e-liquids brands from 4 manufacturers. We determined the concentrations of nicotine, alkaloids, and select flavors and measured pH in solutions used in e-cigarettes. E-cigarette products were chosen based upon favorable consumer approval ratings from online review websites. Quantitative analyses were performed using strict quality assurance/quality control validated methods previously established by our lab for the measurement of nicotine, alkaloids, pH, and flavors. Three-quarters of the products contained lower measured nicotine levels than the stated label values (6%-42% by concentration). The pH for e-liquids ranged from 5.1-9.1. Minor tobacco alkaloids were found in all samples containing nicotine, and their relative concentrations varied widely among manufacturers. A number of common flavor compounds were analyzed in all e-liquids. Free nicotine levels calculated from the measurement of pH correlated with total nicotine content. The direct correlation between the total nicotine concentration and pH suggests that the alkalinity of nicotine drives the pH of e-cigarette solutions. A higher percentage of nicotine exists in the more absorbable free form as total nicotine concentration increases. A number of products contained tobacco alkaloids at concentrations that exceed U.S. pharmacopeia limits for impurities in nicotine used in pharmaceutical and food products.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 057393307

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

Related references

Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Cartridges, Refill Solutions, and Smoke for Nicotine and Nicotine Related Impurities. Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies 34(13-16): 1442-1458, 2011

Nicotine levels and presence of selected tobacco-derived toxins in tobacco flavoured electronic cigarette refill liquids. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12(4): 3439-3452, 2015

Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of nicotine and minor tobacco alkaloids in electronic cigarette refill liquids and second-hand generated aerosol. Journal of Separation Science 40(5): 1049-1056, 2017

The chemical components of electronic cigarette cartridges and refill fluids: review of analytical methods. Nicotine and Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 17(3): 271-279, 2015

Nicotine e-cigarette cartridges can be sold as tobacco products. New Zealand Medical Journal 124(1328): 132-134, 2011

Evaluation of capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of nicotine and selected minor alkaloids from tobacco. Chromatographia 40(7/8): 375-378, 1995

Nicotine levels in electronic cigarette refill solutions: A comparative analysis of products from the U.S., Korea, and Poland. International Journal on Drug Policy 26(6): 583-588, 2015

Effects of non-tobacco flavors and nicotine on e-cigarette product appeal among young adult never, former, and current smokers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 203: 99-106, 2019

Comprehensive determination of flavouring additives and nicotine in e-cigarette refill solutions. Part II: Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Journal of Chromatography. a 1517: 156-164, 2017

Discrepancies in reported versus measured nicotine content of e-cigarette refill liquids across nine European countries before and after the implementation of the EU Tobacco Products Directive. European Respiratory Journal 55(2), 2020

E-cigarette device power moderates the effects of non-tobacco flavors and nicotine on product appeal in young adults. Addictive Behaviors 107: 106403, 2020

Studies on the chemical evaluation of tobacco d quality part 1 possibility for the evaluation of tobacco d quality from chemical composition in particulate phase of the cigarette smoke. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 35(4): 596-603, 1971

Studies on the chemical evaluation of tobacco quality. I. Possibility for the evaluation of tobacco quality from chemical composition in particulate phase of the cigarette smoke. Agricultural and biological chemistry 35(4): 596-603, 1971

Are E-Cigarette Flavors Associated with Exposure to Nicotine and Toxicants? Findings from Wave 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16(24), 2019

Comprehensive determination of flavouring additives and nicotine in e-cigarette refill solutions. Part I: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Journal of Chromatography. a 1519: 45-54, 2017