Complications of endoscopic polypectomy, endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection in the colon
Ma, M.X.; Bourke, M.J.
Best Practice and Research. Clinical Gastroenterology 30(5): 749-767
ISSN/ISBN: 1521-6918 PMID: 27931634 DOI: 10.1016/j.bpg.2016.09.009
Endoscopic resection (ER), including endoscopic polypectomy (EP), endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are used to remove superficial neoplasms from the colon. Snare resection is used for EP and EMR, whereas endoscopic knives are used to perform dissection in the submucosal space in ESD. 80-90% colonic polyps are <10 millimetres (mm) and are effectively managed by conventional EP. Increasingly cold snare polypectomy is preferred. Large laterally spreading lesions (LSLs) and sessile polyps ≥20 mm are primarily removed by EMR. ESD may be used when superficial invasive disease is suspected and for some LSLs, particularly non-granular subtypes. Resection of colonic lesions by ER is associated with a small but definite incidence of significant complications, most commonly bleeding and perforation. This review discusses complications of ER with a particular focus on their prevention, early recognition and management. In many cases, complications from all three procedures share similar mechanisms and management principles and these are described at the start of each section, followed by a description of specific aspects for individual procedures.