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Daily dietary intakes of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium as determined by duplicate portion sampling combined with either instrumental analysis or the use of food composition tables, Shiraz, Iran


Daily dietary intakes of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium as determined by duplicate portion sampling combined with either instrumental analysis or the use of food composition tables, Shiraz, Iran



Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187(5): 349



ISSN/ISBN: 0167-6369

PMID: 25968406

DOI: 10.1007/s10661-015-4515-5

Estimation of essential and toxic element intakes is crucial to evaluate the risks of deficiency or toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate and also to compare the dietary intakes of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) by adults living in Shiraz, Iran, determined by two procedures: duplicate portion sampling of 21 hospital meals combined with either instrumental analysis (voltammetric measurement) or the use of food composition tables (FCTs). The level of exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) was evaluated as well. The daily Zn intakes of both methods were not significantly different and were higher than the RDA values except the value measured by the instrumental analysis which was lower than the RDA established for a male adult. Daily intake of Cu determined by instrumental analysis was significantly lower and closer to RDA for adults compared with the value estimated by FCTs. The dietary intakes of Pb and Cd were 313 and 61% of the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs), respectively. The accuracy of two methods used for estimation of Zn intake was similar. In the case of Cu, the use of FCTs, in which the influence of environmental conditions and dietary habits of meal preparation is not taken into account, overestimated dietary intake. The risk of zinc deficiency was found in adult males. Moreover, the estimated intake of Pb, but not Cd, could be a cause of concern for Shiraz population. Thus, conducting regular periodic studies to assess the dietary intake of mentioned elements are recommended.

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