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Defining characteristics and risk indicators for diagnosing nursing home-acquired pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia in nursing home residents, using the electronically-modified Delphi Method



Defining characteristics and risk indicators for diagnosing nursing home-acquired pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia in nursing home residents, using the electronically-modified Delphi Method



Bmc Geriatrics 16: 60



In nursing home residents, it is not possible to distinguish pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia clinically. International literature reveals no consensus on which and how many characteristics and risk indicators must be present to diagnose (nursing home-acquired) pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia. The aim of this survey was to reach consensus among a panel of clinical medical experts in geriatrics and pulmonology about the characteristics required for diagnosing pneumonia, and about the risk indicators needed to consider the diagnosis aspiration pneumonia in nursing home residents with pneumonia. Literature review and three expert-rating iterations using the electronically-modified Delphi Method were carried out. After each expert rating iteration, data analysis was performed. Qualitative responses and additional (nursing home-acquired) pneumonia characteristics which were mentioned in reply to structured open-ended questions were summarised, whilst similar responses were combined and these combinations were ordered by frequency in order to use them in the next iteration. Characteristics which failed to reach consensus were considered as inconclusive and eliminated. Consensus was reached when at least 70 % of the participants agreed. Literature review revealed 16 currently used common characteristics for diagnosing (nursing home-acquired) pneumonia. No consensus was reached about characteristics and the number of characteristics required for diagnosing (nursing home-acquired) pneumonia. However, 57 % agreed that dyspnea, fever, deterioration of general functioning, tachypnea and crepitation with auscultation are the most important characteristics and the responses by the participants suggested that two or three characteristics should be present. Subsequently, 80 % of the participants agreed on the risk indicators dysphagia, choking incident, (history of) tube feeding, neurological disease and cognitive impairment for considering the diagnosis aspiration pneumonia in nursing home residents with pneumonia. No final consensus could be reached about which and how many characteristics are required for diagnosing pneumonia in nursing home residents. However, the results indicated that dyspnea, fever, deterioration of general functioning, tachypnea and crepitation with auscultation are characteristics of some importance and that at least two or three characteristics should be present. With regard to considering aspiration pneumonia in nursing home residents with pneumonia, final consensus was reached about the risk indicators dysphagia, choking incident, (history of) tube feeding, neurological disease and cognitive impairment.

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Accession: 057567698

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 26951645

DOI: 10.1186/s12877-016-0231-4


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