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Detoxification of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) by cytochrome P450 enzymes: A theoretical investigation

Detoxification of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) by cytochrome P450 enzymes: A theoretical investigation

Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 154: 21-28

Two types of detoxification routes, N-demethylation to form 4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (PTP) and aromatic hydroxylation to generate 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-OH), for 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mediated by Compound I (Cpd I) of cytochrome P450 are investigated theoretically using hybrid density functional calculations. Quantum chemical results reveal that for the N-demethylation, the initial C-H bond activation is achieved via a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism. This is followed by a subsequent O-rebound to yield the carbinolamine intermediate. Due to the nature of pericyclic reaction, the generated carbinolamine decomposes in a non-enzymatic aqueous environment with the assistance of water molecules, forming amine and hydrated formaldehyde. For the aromatic hydroxylation, an initial addition of Cpd I to the substrate occurs mainly through a side-on approach with a subsequent proton shuttle to form the phenol product. A comparison of the energy barriers for both routes indicates that the N-demethylation (7.5/5.7kcal/mol for the quartet/doublet state in solvent) is thermodynamically more favorable than the aromatic hydroxylation process (14.9/14.8kcal/mol for the quartet/doublet state in solvent). This trend is in good agreement with the experimental product distribution, viz., the N-demethylation product PTP is more than the aromatic hydroxylation product MPTP-OH. Taken together, these observations not only enrich our knowledge on the mechanistic details of the N-dealkylation and the aromatic hydroxylation by P450s, but also provide certain insights into the metabolism of other analogous toxins.

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Accession: 057593497

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PMID: 26544505

DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2015.10.009

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