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Diagnostic Accuracy of Perioperative Measurement of Basal Anterior Pituitary and Target Gland Hormones in Predicting Adrenal Insufficiency After Pituitary Surgery

Diagnostic Accuracy of Perioperative Measurement of Basal Anterior Pituitary and Target Gland Hormones in Predicting Adrenal Insufficiency After Pituitary Surgery

Medicine 95(9): E2898

ISSN/ISBN: 0025-7974

PMID: 26945381

DOI: 10.1097/md.0000000000002898

The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency (AI) after pituitary surgery. The ITT is unpleasant for patients, requires close medical supervision and is contraindicated in several comorbidities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether tumor size, remission rate, preoperative, and early postoperative baseline hormone concentrations could serve as predictors of AI in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy of morning serum cortisol. This prospective study enrolled 70 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pituitary adenomas. Thirty-seven patients had nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NPA), 28 had prolactinomas and 5 had somatotropinomas. Thyroxin (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) were measured preoperatively and on the sixth postoperative day. Serum morning cortisol was measured on the third postoperative day (CORT3) as well as the sixth postoperative day (CORT6). Tumor mass was measured preoperatively and remission was assessed 3 months after surgery. An ITT was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively. Remission was achieved in 48% of patients and AI occurred in 51%. Remission rates and tumor type were not associated with AI. CORT3 had the best predictive value for AI (area under the curve (AUC) 0.868, sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 83.3%). Tumor size, preoperative T4, postoperative T4, and TSH were also associated with AI in a multivariate regression model. A combination of all preoperative and postoperative variables (excluding serum cortisol) had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 77.8%. The predictive power of CORT3 substantially improved by adding those variables into the model (AUC 0.921, sensitivity 94.1%, specificity 78.3%, PPV 81.9%, NPV of 92.7%). In a subgroup analysis that included only female patients with NPA, LH had exactly the same predictive value as CORT3. The addition of baseline LH to CORT3, increased sensitivity to 100.0%, specificity to 88.9%, PPV to 90.4%, and NPV to 100.0%. Besides CORT3, tumor size, thyroid hormones, and gonadotropins can serve as predictors of AI. LH in postmenopausal female patients with NPA has similar diagnostic accuracy as CORT3. Further studies are needed in order to validate the scoring system proposed by this study.

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Accession: 057611013

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