Dietary Linoleic Acid Lowering Reduces Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Increase in Brain Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

Taha, A.Y.; Blanchard, H.C.; Cheon, Y.; Ramadan, E.; Chen, M.; Chang, L.; Rapoport, S.I.

Molecular Neurobiology 54(6): 4303-4315

2017


ISSN/ISBN: 1559-1182
PMID: 27339880
DOI: 10.1007/s12035-016-9968-1
Accession: 057616173

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Abstract
Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) is a precursor to arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), which can be converted by brain lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes into various lipid mediators involved in the regulation of brain immunity. Brain AA metabolism is activated in rodents by the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This study tested the hypothesis that dietary LA lowering, which limits plasma supply of AA to the brain, reduces LPS-induced upregulation in brain AA metabolism. Male Fischer CDF344 rats fed an adequate LA (5.2 % energy (en)) or low LA (0.4 % en) diet for 15 weeks were infused with LPS (250 ng/h) or vehicle into the fourth ventricle for 2 days using a mini-osmotic pump. The incorporation rate of intravenously infused unesterified 14C-AA into brain lipids, eicosanoids, and activities of phospholipase A2 and COX-1 and 2 enzymes were measured. Dietary LA lowering reduced the LPS-induced increase in prostaglandin E2 concentration and COX-2 activity (P < 0.05 by two-way ANOVA) without altering phospholipase activity. The 14C-AA incorporation rate into brain lipids was decreased by dietary LA lowering (P < 0.05 by two-way ANOVA). The present findings suggest that dietary LA lowering reduced LPS-induced increase in brain markers of AA metabolism. The clinical utility of LA lowering in brain disorders should be explored in future studies.