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Distinct pathways of cholesterol biosynthesis impact on insulin secretion

Distinct pathways of cholesterol biosynthesis impact on insulin secretion

Journal of Endocrinology 224(1): 75-84

Results from previous investigations have indicated that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is affected by changes in cholesterol and its intermediates, but the precise link between secretion and cholesterol has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we show the contribution of both protein isoprenylation and cholesterol-dependent plasma membrane structural integrity to insulin secretion in INS-1E cells and mouse islets. Acute (2 h) inhibition of hydroxyl-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase by simvastatin (SIM) resulted in inhibition of GSIS without reduction in total cellular cholesterol content. This effect was prevented by cell loading with the isoprenyl molecule geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Chronic (24 h) inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis resulted in inhibition of GSIS with a significant reduction in total cellular cholesterol content, which was also observed after the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis downstream of isoprenoid formation. Electron paramagnetic resonance analyses of INS-1E cells showed that the SIM-induced reduction in cholesterol increased plasma membrane fluidity. Thus, the blockade of cholesterol biosynthesis resulted in the reduction of availability of isoprenoids, followed by a reduction in the total cholesterol content associated with an increase in plasma membrane fluidity. Herein, we show the different contributions of cholesterol biosynthesis to GSIS, and propose that isoprenoid molecules and cholesterol-dependent signaling are dual regulators of proper β-cell function.

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Accession: 057641487

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PMID: 25453115

DOI: 10.1530/JOE-14-0348

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