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Eating Disorders in Female High School Students: Educational and Migration Background, School-Related Stress and Performance-Orientated Classes



Eating Disorders in Female High School Students: Educational and Migration Background, School-Related Stress and Performance-Orientated Classes



Gesundheitswesen ) 80(S 01): S5-S11



Many adolescents and young adults, especially young females, suffer from eating disorders or problematic nutrition behavior. Children and adolescents with migration background as well as from a lower social class are more likely to have eating disorders 1. Although schools are an important context in these age groups, there is a lack of scientific inquiry concerning the relationship between schooling and eating disorders. The present study investigates the relationship between performance-related stress at school and eating disorders while controlling for personnel and familial resources. Interview data on the 7th grade high school students from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS)* starting cohort 3 are used. The dependent variable is based on the SCOFF questionnaire. Logistic regressions are calculated using information from students and parents. Performance-related stress at school is operationalized by the negative deviation of realistic from idealistic educational aspirations (EA) and unfulfilled social expectations (SE), performance-oriented class climate is operationalized by students' perception of the performance-orientation of the teacher (PT) and the expectations of classmates (EC). The results point towards an increased risk of suffering from an eating disorder due to performance-related school stress (EA: AME: 0.18; p<0.001; SE: AME: 0.12; p<0.05) and performance-oriented class climate (PT: AME: 0.05; p<0.1; EC: AME: 0.15, p<0.01). They partly explain the relation between both migration background and educational background and eating disorders. In order to prevent eating disorders in female high school students, attention should be paid to performance-orientation experienced at school and in the social background, and improved individual support for disadvantaged students should be made available. Auffälliges Ernährungsverhalten bis hin zur manifesten Essstörung sind weit verbreitete Phänomene bei Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen. Insbesondere Mädchen und junge Frauen sind betroffen. Kinder und Jugendliche mit Migrationshintergrund und niedriger sozialer Herkunft sind häufiger von Essstörungen betroffen 1. Obwohl die Schule in der Lebenswelt von Kindern- und Jugendlichen eine zentrale Bedeutung hat, fehlen bisher Studien, die schulische Faktoren in die Erklärung einbeziehen. Die vorliegende Arbeit prüft inwieweit unter Kontrolle von personalen und familialen Ressourcen ein Zusammenhang zwischen leistungsbezogenem Schulstress sowie leistungsorientiertem Klassenklima mit Essstörungen besteht. Verwendet werden Daten von Schülern der Startkohorte 3 des Nationalen Bildungspanels (NEPS)*, die sich im Befragungszeitraum in der 7. Klasse befanden. Es handelt sich um eine Querschnittanalyse. Die abhängige Variable basiert auf dem Fragebogen SCOFF und wird in logistischen Regressionsmodellen mit Angaben der Schüler sowie der Eltern in Verbindung gesetzt. Leistungsbedingter Schulstress wird über die negative Abweichung realistischer von idealistischer Bildungsaspiration (AB) und unerfüllte soziale Erwartungen (SE), leistungsorientiertes Klima über die Schülerwahrnehmung des Deutschlehrers (DL) und der Anstrengungserwartungen der Klassenkameraden (AM) operationalisiert. Leistungsbedingter Schulstress (AB: AME: 0,18; p<0,001; SE: AME: 0,12; p<0,05) und leistungsorientiertes Klima (DL: AME: 0,05; p<0,1; AM: AME: 0,15, p<0,01) gehen mit der erhöhten Wahrscheinlichkeit einer Essstörung einher und können zum Teil die Zusammenhänge zwischen Migrationshintergrund sowie Bildungshintergrund und Essstörungen erklären. Essstörungen sollte in der schulischen Gesundheitsförderung mehr beachtung geschänkt werden. Zur Prävention von Essstörungen bei Schülerinnen könnte die Frage von Leistungserwartungen, die die schulische und soziale Umwelt an die Schülerinnen stellt, sowie deren Umgang mit diesen Erwartungen, stärker in den Fokus gerückt werden. Weitere Untersuchungen – insbesondere im Längsschnitt oder unter Einbeziehung weiterer Drittvariablen (z. B. Perfaktionismus, Copingstrategien) – wären notwendig, um eine kausale Interpretation der Zusammenhänge abzusichern.

Accession: 057683052

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PMID: 27846668

DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-113602


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