Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Glycemic Control in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Type 2 Diabetes. A Randomized Clinical Trial

Martínez-Cerón, E.; Barquiel, B.; Bezos, A-Maria.; Casitas, R.; Galera, Rúl.; García-Benito, C.; Hernanz, A.; Alonso-Fernández, A.; Garcia-Rio, F.

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 194(4): 476-485

2016


ISSN/ISBN: 1073-449X
PMID: 26910598
DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201510-1942oc
Accession: 057693828

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Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes that adversely impacts glycemic control. However, there is little evidence about the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on glycemic control in patients with diabetes. To assess the effect of CPAP on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in patients with suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes and OSA, and to identify its determinants. In a 6-month, open-label, parallel, and randomized clinical trial, 50 patients with OSA and type 2 diabetes and two HbA1c levels equal to or exceeding 6.5% were randomized to CPAP (n = 26) or no CPAP (control; n = 24), while their usual medication for diabetes remained unchanged. HbA1c levels, Homeostasis Model Assessment and Qualitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index scores, systemic biomarkers, and health-related quality of life were measured at 3 and 6 months. After 6 months, the CPAP group achieved a greater decrease in HbA1c levels compared with the control group. Insulin resistance and sensitivity measurements (in noninsulin users) and serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and adiponectin also improved in the CPAP group compared with the control group after 6 months. In patients treated with CPAP, mean nocturnal oxygen saturation and baseline IL-1β were independently related to the 6-month change in HbA1c levels (r(2) = 0.510, P = 0.002). Among patients with suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes and OSA, CPAP treatment for 6 months resulted in improved glycemic control and insulin resistance compared with results for a control group. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01801150).