Effect of dietary sugar concentration and sunflower seed supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of dairy cows
Razzaghi, A.; Valizadeh, R.; Naserian, A.A.; Mesgaran, M.Danesh.; Carpenter, A.J.; Ghaffari, M.H.
Journal of Dairy Science 99(5): 3539-3548
ISSN/ISBN: 0022-0302 PMID: 26971160 DOI: 10.3168/jds.2015-10565
Previous research has shown that both sunflower seed (SF) and sucrose (SC) supplementation can result in variation in milk fat concentration and composition, possibly due to altered fermentation patterns and biohydrogenation of fatty acids in the rumen. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different sugar concentrations with or without SF supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein dairy cows (body weight=620±15kg, 60±10 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each 21-d period consisted of a 14-d diet adaptation period and 7-d collection period. Dairy cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets: (1) no additional SC without SF supplementation (NSC-SF), (2) no additional SC with SF supplementation (NSC+SF), (3) SC without SF supplementation (SC-SF), and (4) SC with SF supplementation (SC+SF). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage and alfalfa hay). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by replacing corn grain with SC and SF and balanced using change in proportions of canola meal and sugar beet pulp. No interaction was detected between SC and SF supplementation with respect to dry matter intake, milk yield, and composition. A tendency was found for an interaction between inclusion of SC and SF on energy-corrected milk with the highest amount in the SC-SF diet. Ruminal pH and the molar proportion of acetate were affected by SC inclusion, with an increase related to the SC-SF diet. Diets containing SF decreased the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (4:0 to 10:0) and medium-chain fatty acids (12:0 to 16:0) in milk fat. The addition of SC tended to decrease the concentration of total trans-18:1. These data provide evidence that exchanging SC for corn at 4% of dietary dry matter influenced milk fat content and rumen pH, resulting in a tendency for decreased concentration of trans-18:1 in milk fat. Sucrose alone did not alter the milk fatty acid profile when cows were fed a combination of unsaturated fat and sugar, although several significant interactions between sugar and unsaturated fat were observed.