Effect of rate of weight gain of steers during the stocker phase. IV. Rumen fermentation characteristics and expression of genes involved in substrate utilization for fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissues of growing-finishing beef cattle
Lancaster, P.A.; Sharman, E.D.; Horn, G.W.; Krehbiel, C.R.; Dillwith, J.W.; Starkey, J.D.
Journal of Animal Science 93(6): 3055-3065
The objective of this study was to determine the impact of stocker production systems differing in growth rate on rumen fermentation characteristics and utilization of substrates for fatty acid synthesis in intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), and perirenal (PR) adipose tissues. Angus steers were assigned to 4 stocker cattle production systems in 2 consecutive years: 1) 1.0 kg/d of 40% CP cottonseed meal–based supplement while grazing dormant native range (CON), 2) ground corn/soybean meal–based supplement while grazing dormant native range fed at 1% of BW (CORN), 3) grazing wheat pasture at a high stocking rate to achieve a low rate of BW gain (LGWP), and 4) grazing wheat pasture at a low stocking rate for a high rate of BW gain (HGWP). Eight ruminally cannulated steers were used to determine rumen fermentation characteristics. Steers were harvested during the stocker phase at similar age (different carcass weight) in Exp. 1 (3 steers/treatment) or at similar carcass weight in Exp. 2 (4 steers/treatment). Adipose tissues were analyzed for mRNA expression of genes involved in glucose (solute carrier family 2, member 4 [GLUT4], glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PDH], phosphofructokinase, muscle [PFKM], and pyruvate kinase 2, muscle [PK2]), lactate (lactate dehydrogenase B [LDHB]), and acetate (acetyl-CoA synthetase, cytosol [ACSS2]) utilization for fatty acid synthesis. The acetate:propionate ratio was least (P < 0.05) for HGWP steers, intermediate for CORN and LGWP steers, and greatest for CON steers. At similar age, LGWP and HGWP steers tended (F-test; P < 0.15) to have greater (P < 0.10) G6PDH and ACSS2 mRNA expression than CON and CORN steers in SC and PR but not IM adipose tissue. Expression of PFKM and PK2 mRNA tended (F-test; P < 0.15) to be greater (P < 0.10) in HGWP than CON and LGWP steers in IM but not SC or PR adipose tissue. At similar HCW, expression of GLUT4 and G6PDH mRNA were greater (P < 0.10) in SC adipose tissue of LGWP and HGWP steers compared with CON and CORN steers but not in IM and PR adipose tissue. Expression of LDHB mRNA was lesser (P < 0.10) in SC adipose tissue but greater (P < 0.10) in PR adipose tissue of LGWP and HGWP steers compared with CON and CORN steers. These results indicate a shift toward glucose utilization in SC adipose tissue but a shift towards lactate utilization in PR adipose tissue. These results suggest that diet and changes in VFA profile can influence substrates utilized for fatty acid synthesis, but diet has a greater effect in SC than IM adipose tissue.