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Enzyme-based logic gates and circuits-analytical applications and interfacing with electronics

Enzyme-based logic gates and circuits-analytical applications and interfacing with electronics

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 409(1): 81-94

ISSN/ISBN: 1618-2642

PMID: 27900435

DOI: 10.1007/s00216-016-0079-7

The paper is an overview of enzyme-based logic gates and their short circuits, with specific examples of Boolean AND and OR gates, and concatenated logic gates composed of multi-step enzyme-biocatalyzed reactions. Noise formation in the biocatalytic reactions and its decrease by adding a "filter" system, converting convex to sigmoid response function, are discussed. Despite the fact that the enzyme-based logic gates are primarily considered as components of future biomolecular computing systems, their biosensing applications are promising for immediate practical use. Analytical use of the enzyme logic systems in biomedical and forensic applications is discussed and exemplified with the logic analysis of biomarkers of various injuries, e.g., liver injury, and with analysis of biomarkers characteristic of different ethnicity found in blood samples on a crime scene. Interfacing of enzyme logic systems with modified electrodes and semiconductor devices is discussed, giving particular attention to the interfaces functionalized with signal-responsive materials. Future perspectives in the design of the biomolecular logic systems and their applications are discussed in the conclusion. Graphical Abstract Various applications and signal-transduction methods are reviewed for enzyme-based logic systems.

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Accession: 057778622

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