Evaluation of short-term use of nocturnal nasal continuous positive airway pressure for a clinical profile and exercise capacity in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome
Goel, A.K.; Talwar, D.; Jain, S.K.
Lung India Official Organ of Indian Chest Society 32(3): 225-232
The obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a common chronic respiratory disease, characterized by repetitive complete or partial collapse of the upper airway during sleep. The clinical spectrum extends between stoppage of breathing, snoring, daytime somnolence, and fatigue, to serious cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic syndrome, increased morbidity, and mortality. We aim to evaluate the short-term use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy for the clinical profile and exercise capacity of patients with OSAHS. Twenty patients diagnosed with moderate-to-severe OSAHS were enrolled in the study (study group - 15; clinically and PSG-matched control group - 5). Each patient was clinically evaluated for sleep-related symptoms, and also assessed with spirometry, the six-minute walk test (6MWT), and a symptom-limited incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). The study group patients were administered nCPAP therapy for eight hours each night for four weeks, while the control group patients were just observed. They were re-assessed after four weeks and the data were statistically analyzed between the two groups. The study group patients showed a significant (P- < 0.05) improvement in the OSAHS symptoms-the Epworth sleepiness score, six-minute walk distance; duration of exercise, power output, peak oxygen uptake, anaerobic threshold, diastolic blood pressure, dyspnea, and fatigue-in comparison with the control group patients. The improvement in exercise capacity following nCPAP therapy was attributed to the relief of disabling the OSAHS symptoms and improved cardiovascular, ventilator, and musculoskeletal functions. All OSAHS patients must be treated with nCPAP.