Femoroacetabular impingement: current concepts in diagnosis and treatment
Amanatullah, D.F.; Antkowiak, T.; Pillay, K.; Patel, J.; Refaat, M.; Toupadakis, C.A.; Jamali, A.A.
Orthopedics 38(3): 185-199
As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Identify the etiology of femoroacetabular impingement. 2. Assess femoroacetabular impingement on physical examination. 3. Recognize femoroacetabular impingement on imaging studies. 4. Discuss modern techniques to effectively treat femoroacetabular impingement, both open and arthroscopic. Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a recently proposed concept describing abnormal anatomic relationships within the hip joint that may lead to articular damage. Impingement is caused by bony deformities or spatial malorientation of the femoral head-neck junction and/or the acetabulum. These abnormalities lead to pathologic contact and shearing forces at the acetabular labrum and cartilage during physiological hip motion. There is an increasing body of evidence that these forces lead to cartilage wear and eventual osteoarthritis. Treatment options for FAI are evolving rapidly. Although the gold standard remains open hip dislocation, arthroscopic techniques have shown significant promise. It is possible that early recognition and treatment of subtle deformity about the hip may reduce the rate of hip osteoarthritis in the future.