+ Site Statistics
References:
54,258,434
Abstracts:
29,560,870
PMIDs:
28,072,757
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

High prevalence of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia: Correlates of overdose and implications for overdose prevention from a cross-sectional study



High prevalence of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia: Correlates of overdose and implications for overdose prevention from a cross-sectional study



International Journal on Drug Policy 26(7): 675-681



Overdose is the leading cause of death among opioid users, but no data are available on overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia. We present the first estimates of the prevalence and correlates of recent non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia. In 2010, 460 people who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Klang Valley to assess health outcomes associated with injection drug use. Self-reported history of non-fatal overdose in the previous 6 months was the primary outcome. Sociodemographic, behavioral and structural correlates of non-fatal overdose were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. All 460 participants used opioids and nearly all (99.1%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Most injected daily (91.3%) and were male (96.3%) and ethnically Malay (90.4%). Overall, 20% of participants had overdosed in the prior 6 months, and 43.3% had ever overdosed. The RDS-adjusted estimate of the 6-month period prevalence of overdose was 12.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.9-16.6%). Having injected for more years was associated with lower odds of overdose (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.6 per 5 years of injection, CI: 0.5-0.7). Rushing an injection from fear of the police nearly doubled the odds of overdose (AOR 1.9, CI: 1.9-3.6). Alcohol use was associated with recent non-fatal overdose (AOR 2.1, CI: 1.1-4.2), as was methamphetamine use (AOR 2.3, CI: 1.3-4.6). When adjusting for past-month drug use, intermittent but not daily methadone use was associated with overdose (AOR 2.8, CI: 1.5-5.9). This study reveals a large, previously undocumented burden of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia and highlights the need for interventions that might reduce the risk of overdose, such as continuous opioid substitution therapy, provision of naloxone to prevent fatal overdose, treatment of polysubstance use, and working with police to improve the risk environment.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 057990654

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 25532449

DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.11.010


Related references

Non-fatal overdose as a risk factor for subsequent fatal overdose among people who inject drugs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 162: 51-55, 2016

Overdose among heroin users in Sydney, Australia: I. Prevalence and correlates of non-fatal overdose. Addiction 91(3): 405-411, 1996

Increased non-fatal overdose risk associated with involuntary drug treatment in a longitudinal study with people who inject drugs. Addiction 113(6): 1056-1063, 2018

Associations between childhood trauma and non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs. Addictive Behaviors 43: 83-88, 2015

Characteristics of persons who inject drugs and who witness opioid overdoses in Vietnam: a cross-sectional analysis to inform future overdose prevention programs. Harm Reduction Journal 14(1): 62, 2018

Fentanyl-contaminated drugs and non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Baltimore, MD. Harm Reduction Journal 15(1): 34, 2018

Overdose mortality rates in Croatia and factors associated with self-reported drug overdose among persons who inject drugs in three Croatian cities. International Journal on Drug Policy 64: 95-102, 2019

No association between HIV status and risk of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Addictive Behaviors 60: 8-12, 2018

The effect of prescription opioid injection on the risk of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 156: 297-303, 2016

The relationship between parental heavy drinking and non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Addictive Behaviors 89: 224-228, 2018

Incidence and predictors of non-fatal drug overdose after release from prison among people who inject drugs in Queensland, Australia. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 153: 43-49, 2016

The New York 911 Good Samaritan Law and Opioid Overdose Prevention Among People Who Inject Drugs. World Medical & Health Policy 9(3): 318-340, 2017

Can differences in the type, nature or amount of polysubstance use explain the increased risk of non-fatal overdose among psychologically distressed people who inject drugs?. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 154: 76-84, 2016

Potential impact of implementing and scaling up harm reduction and antiretroviral therapy on HIV prevalence and mortality and overdose deaths among people who inject drugs in two Russian cities: a modelling study. Lancet. HIV 5(10): E578-E587, 2018

A Longitudinal Study of Multiple Drug Use and Overdose Among Young People Who Inject Drugs. American Journal of Public Health 106(5): 915-917, 2016