Section 59
Chapter 58,019

Human papillomavirus-associated anal and cervical cancers in HIV-infected individuals: incidence and prevention in the antiretroviral therapy era

Palefsky, J.M.

Current Opinion in HIV and Aids 12(1): 26-30


ISSN/ISBN: 1746-630X
PMID: 27828801
DOI: 10.1097/coh.0000000000000336
Accession: 058018643

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The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers has increased (anal cancer) or not declined (cervical cancer) since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This article reviews recent data on incidence and prevention efforts for HPV-related cancers in the ART era. ART may confer some benefit with respect to reducing the risk of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and cancer, but the degree of that benefit appears to be limited. The prevalence of anal HPV infection, anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and anal cancer remain high among individuals on effective ART. The incidence of cervical cancer is high among HIV-infected women, particularly in countries wherein there are no organized cervical cancer prevention programmes. Efforts are in progress to define optimal screen-and-treat cervical cancer prevention programmes in different clinical settings and to define the efficacy of secondary prevention programmes for prevention of anal cancer. HPV-related cancers are likely to remain an important problem in HIV-infected men and women for the foreseeable future, even among those on effective ART.

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