Impact of protein-rich meals on glycaemic response of rice
Quek, R.; Bi, X.; Henry, C.J.
British Journal of Nutrition 115(7): 1194-1201
ISSN/ISBN: 1475-2662 PMID: 26856623 DOI: 10.1017/s0007114515005498
Asians typically consume carbohydrate-rich and high-glycaemic-index diets that have been associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Rice is rarely eaten alone such that it is of interest to investigate the effects of co-ingesting different protein-rich meals with rice on insulin and glycaemic response. This study had a randomised, controlled, non-blind, cross-over design in which fifteen healthy Chinese male participants were required to come on non-consecutive days. Five rice-based test meals were served: rice alone (control), rice with fish (RWF), rice with egg white (RWE), rice with soya beancurd (taukwa) (RWT) and rice with chicken (RWC). The control meal consisted of 50 g of available carbohydrate, whereas all other test meals contained additional 25 g of protein. RWT was the only meal that showed significantly lower glucose response when compared with the control (P<0·05). RWF and RWE had significantly higher insulin response, but no significant increase was observed in RWT and RWC when compared with the control (P<0·05). RWT and RWF showed significantly higher glucagon secretion as compared with the control (P<0·05). The four test meals studied showed varying effects, with RWT showing the greatest reduction in glycaemic response. Therefore, the ingestion of soya beancurd with rice may have a direct impact on reducing the risk in Asians transiting from being pre-diabetics to diabetics.