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Increased Expression of Interleukin-36, a Member of the Interleukin-1 Cytokine Family, in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Increased Expression of Interleukin-36, a Member of the Interleukin-1 Cytokine Family, in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 22(2): 303-314

Interleukin (IL)-36 (IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ) is a recently reported member of the IL-1 cytokine family. In this study, we investigated IL-36 expression in the inflamed mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and characterized the proinflammatory actions of IL-36 cytokines in human colonic epithelial cells. IL-36 mRNA expression was evaluated using real-time PCR. IL-36 protein expression was analyzed using immunoblotting and immunohistochemical technique. Intracellular signaling pathways were evaluated by immunoblotting and by specific siRNA-transfected cells. The mRNA expression of IL-36α and IL-36γ, but not of IL-36β, was enhanced in the inflamed mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, in particular, in ulcerative colitis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that T cells, monocytes, and plasma cells are the source of IL-36α and IL-36γ in colonic mucosa. DNA microarray analysis indicated that IL-36α induces the mRNA expression of CXC chemokines and acute phase proteins in intestinal epithelial cell line, HT-29 cells. IL-36α and IL-36γ dose-dependently and time-dependently induced the mRNA and protein expression of CXC chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3 etc.) in HT-29 and Widr cells. Stimulation with IL-36α and IL-36γ assembled MyD88 adaptor proteins (MyD88, TRAF6, IRAK1, and TAK1) into a complex and induced the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 and also the phosphorylation of MAPKs. MAPK inhibitors and siRNAs specific for NF-κB and c-Jun AP-1 significantly reduced IL-36-induced CXC chemokine expression. IL-36α and IL-36γ may play a proinflammatory role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease through induction of CXC chemokines and acute phase proteins.

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Accession: 058095339

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PMID: 26752465

DOI: 10.1097/mib.0000000000000654

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