Isolated Peripancreatic Necrosis in Acute Pancreatitis Is Infrequent and Leads to Severe Clinical Course only when Extensive: a Prospective Study from a US Tertiary Center
Koutroumpakis, E.; Dasyam, A.K.; Furlan, A.; Slivka, A.; Gougol, A.; Zeh, H.J.; Lee, K.K.; Zureikat, A.H.; Whitcomb, D.C.; Yadav, D.; Papachristou, G.I.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 50(7): 589-595
To explore the diagnostic challenges, management, and clinical outcomes of patients with isolated peripancreatic necrosis (PPN), with emphasis on the extent of involvement, and compare them to pancreatic necrosis (PN). PPN, a relatively new term, has been included as a separate entity in the Revised Atlanta Classification. Clinical data of recruited acute pancreatitis patients were recorded prospectively. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scans were reviewed by expert radiologists blinded to clinical outcomes. In total, 271 of the 400 acute pancreatitis patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography, of which 29 (11%) had PPN (14: limited; 15: extensive) and 124 (46%) PN (40: <30%, 16: 30% to 50%, 68: >50% of parenchyma). Patients with PPN were similar to PN in age (56 y), gender (55% male), and body mass index (29 kg/m(2)). Nutritional support was provided in 18 (62%) patients with PPN and 97 (78%) with PN (P=0.12). Drainage/debridement was required in 2 patients (7%) with PPN and 64 (53%) with parenchymal necrosis (P<0.001). Persistent organ failure rates did not differ significantly (34% vs. 51%, P=0.17), but hospital stay was shorter in patients with PPN (15 vs. 20 d, P=0.05). Limited PPN required no intervention and had similar persistent organ failure rates and hospitalization length with interstitial pancreatitis (both P≥0.12). Extensive PPN mainly developed in patients with persistent organ failure (60%) and rarely required drainage (2/15). PPN prevalence was lower than PN with a ratio of 1:4. PPN rarely required intervention. Utilizing the extent of involvement has the potential to classify PPN and PN with escalating clinical significance and guide management.