EurekaMag
+ Translate
+ Most Popular
Investigations on the organic drift in North Swedish streams
Limitations of Using Microsoft Excel Version 2016 (MS Excel 2016) for Statistical Analysis for Medical Research
Phloem necrosis of coffee in Surinam
Anatomy of Mystus seenghala IV Nervous system
Integrated farming system for gardenland conditions of Coimbatore district - an over view
Tetrapleure (Tetrapleura tetraptera), an unknown African medicinal and spice plant
The origin and phylogenetic significance of the trochophoran larvae 2. evolutionary significance of the larvae of coelomate worms and mollusks
Comparison of rice bran and maize bran as feeds for growing and fattening pigs
Enterobacter amnigenus. An unusual human pathogen
Influence of Seriboost foliar application on leaf yield and leaf protein content in mulberry (Morus spp.), in relation to silkworm cocoon production
The identity of the lipstick mold of cultivated mushrooms agaricus bisporus
Advantages and disadvantages of bordeaux mixture and of lime-sulphur used on apples in the growing season
'Pan-sukh' disease of Rice in the Central Provinces
Geological age of the Ptilophyllum flora; a critical reassessment
Study of vitellogenesis in birds; physiological phases & role of folliculin in vitellogenesis
Evaluation of WCT coconut and Komadan coconut
Therapy for acne with saccharomyces boulardii
Evidence for Late Cretaceous N-S dextral shear in the west-central crystalline core, North Cascades, Washington
'Rajeshwari' - a high-yielding white seeded variety of sesame for Andhra Pradesh
Manufacture of Ricotta cheese from whey fortified with skim milk powder using different acidulants
Occurrence of Eutrichophilus mexicanus (Rudow, 1866) and Eutrichophilus lobatus (Ewing, 1936) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) on Sphiggurus villosus (Cuvier, 1825) (Rodentia: Erethizontidae) in Rio de
Factors affecting fruitfulness in durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.). I. Flowering and pollination
Bronchial cuff pressure change caused by left-sided double-lumen endobronchial tube displacement
Some Biological Applications of Organometallic Compounds
The composition of pampas-grass (Cortaderia argentea.)

Limitations of Western Medicine and Models of Integration Between Medical Systems


Limitations of Western Medicine and Models of Integration Between Medical Systems



Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 22(5): 343-348



ISSN/ISBN: 1075-5535

PMID: 27070976

DOI: 10.1089/acm.2015.0381

This article analyzes two major limitations of Western medicine: maturity and incompleteness. From this viewpoint, Western medicine is considered an incomplete system for the explanation of living matter. Therefore, through appropriate integration with other medical systems, in particular nonconventional approaches, its knowledge base and interpretations may be widened. This article presents possible models of integration of Western medicine with homeopathy, the latter being viewed as representative of all complementary and alternative medicine. To compare the two, a medical system was classified into three levels through which it is possible to distinguish between different medical systems: epistemological (first level), theoretical (second level), and operational (third level). These levels are based on the characterization of any medical system according to, respectively, a reference paradigm, a theory on the functioning of living matter, and clinical practice. The three levels are consistent and closely consequential in the sense that from epistemology derives theory, and from theory derives clinical practice. Within operational integration, four models were identified: contemporary, alternative, sequential, and opportunistic. Theoretical integration involves an explanation of living systems covering simultaneously the molecular and physical mechanisms of functioning living matter. Epistemological integration provides a more thorough and comprehensive explanation of the epistemic concepts of indeterminism, holism, and vitalism to complement the reductionist approach of Western medicine; concepts much discussed by Western medicine while lacking the epistemologic basis for their emplacement. Epistemologic integration could be reached with or without a true paradigm shift and, in the latter, through a model of fusion or subsumption.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 058218572

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

Related references

Medical knowledge integration and "systems medicine": Needs, ambitions, limitations and options. Medical Hypotheses 133: 109386, 2019

Dilemma of integration with Western medicine - views of Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners in a predominant Western medical setting. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 21(4): 300-305, 2013

Integration of a Kampo medicine, Nijutsuto, and Western medical treatment in the treatment of long-term frozen shoulder refractory to Western medical treatment: a case series. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 20(2): 157-161, 2015

Medicine in motion: Opportunities, challenges and data analytics-based solutions for traditional medicine integration into western medical practice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2020: 113477, 2021

Evaluation of Google Glass Technical Limitations on Their Integration in Medical Systems. Sensors 16(12), 2016

Western medicine and traditional healing systems: competition, cooperation or integration?. Ethics in Science and Medicine 3(1): 1-20, 1976

Integration of Chinese medicine with Western medicine could lead to future medicine: molecular module medicine. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine 22(4): 243-250, 2016

Developing a complex systems perspective for medical education to facilitate the integration of basic science and clinical medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23(2): 460-466, 2017

Status of Indian medicine and folk healing: With a focus on integration of AYUSH medical systems in healthcare delivery. Ayu 33(4): 461-465, 2012

The review of innovative integration of Kampo medicine and Western medicine as personalized medicine at the first multidisciplinary pain center in Japan. Epma Journal 5(1): 10, 2014

The status and role of integration of traditional Chinese and Western medicine in the development of Chinese medical sciences. Zhong Xi Yi Jie he Za Zhi 11(1): 7-9, 1991

Integration of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in the era of precision medicine. Journal of Integrative Medicine 15(1): 1-7, 2017

Towards a flexible integration of clinical guideline systems with medical ontologies and medical information systems. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 101: 108-112, 2004

The raising of evidence-based medicine inspires the integration of traditional and Western medicine. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie he Za Zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi Jiehe Zazhi 19(11): 643-644, 1999

The raising of evidence-based medicine inspires the integration of traditional and western medicine. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine 6(4): 242-243, 2000