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Long-Term Outcomes of Bladder Neck Reconstruction without Augmentation Cystoplasty in Children

Long-Term Outcomes of Bladder Neck Reconstruction without Augmentation Cystoplasty in Children

Journal of Urology 195(1): 155-161

Bladder outlet procedures without augmentation cystoplasty remain controversial. We hypothesized that bladder outlet procedures without augmentation cystoplasty may lead to unfavorable bladder dynamics, upper tract changes and/or continued incontinence. We reviewed long-term urodynamic, upper tract and continence outcomes following bladder outlet procedures without augmentation cystoplasty. We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent bladder neck reconstruction/closure/sling without augmentation cystoplasty between 2000 and 2014. Because of variation in length of followup, we calculated the cumulative incidence and proportion of cases of upper tract and urodynamic changes, augmentation cystoplasty and subsequent continence procedures. Preoperative factors were compared between patients with and without adverse outcomes. A total of 109 patients underwent bladder outlet procedures without augmentation cystoplasty at a mean age of 8.5 years. At a mean of 4.9 years of followup 59 patients (54%) had undergone additional continence surgery, 20 (18%) had undergone augmentation cystoplasty, 50 (46%) manifested vesicoureteral reflux or hydronephrosis and 23 (21%) had newly diagnosed or worsening renal scarring. At augmentation cystoplasty 13 of 18 patients (72%) had upper tract changes, 15 (83%) had continued incontinence and 11 (61%) had an end fill pressure of greater than 40 cm H2O. All patients had resolution of these changes after augmentation cystoplasty. Patients who had previously undergone vesicostomy or surgery for vesicoureteral reflux were significantly more likely to undergo a subsequent augmentation cystoplasty or to show upper tract changes. Following bladder outlet procedures without augmentation cystoplasty the estimated 10-year cumulative incidence of augmentation cystoplasty is 30%, continence procedures 70%, upper tract changes greater than 50% and chronic kidney disease 20%. Because of these risks, careful patient selection and close followup are essential if considering a bladder outlet procedure without augmentation cystoplasty.

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Accession: 058231556

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PMID: 26173106

DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2015.06.103

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