+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution and the risk of lung cancer among participants of the Canadian National Breast Screening Study



Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution and the risk of lung cancer among participants of the Canadian National Breast Screening Study



International Journal of Cancer 139(9): 1958-1966



Recently, air pollution has been classified as a carcinogen largely on the evidence of epidemiological studies of lung cancer. However, there have been few prospective studies that have evaluated associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and cancer at lower concentrations. We conducted a prospective analysis of 89,234 women enrolled in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study between 1980 and 1985, and for whom residential measures of PM2.5 could be assigned. The cohort was linked to the Canadian Cancer Registry to identify incident lung cancers through 2004. Surface PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using satellite data. Cox proportional hazards models were used to characterize associations between PM2.5 and lung cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) computed from these models were adjusted for several individual-level characteristics, including smoking. The cohort was composed predominantly of Canadian-born (82%), married (80%) women with a median PM2.5 exposure of 9.1 µg/m(3) . In total, 932 participants developed lung cancer. In fully adjusted models, a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer (HR: 1.34; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.65). The strongest associations were observed with small cell carcinoma (HR: 1.53; 95% CI = 0.93, 2.53) and adenocarcinoma (HR: 1.44; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.97). Stratified analyses suggested increased PM2.5 risks were limited to those who smoked cigarettes. Our findings are consistent with previous epidemiological investigations of long-term exposure to PM2.5 and lung cancer. Importantly, they suggest associations persist at lower concentrations such as those currently found in Canadian cities.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 058233992

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 27380650

DOI: 10.1002/ijc.30255


Related references

Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Mortality Among Canadian Women. Epidemiology 26(4): 536-545, 2015

Risk of Nonaccidental and Cardiovascular Mortality in Relation to Long-term Exposure to Low Concentrations of Fine Particulate Matter: A Canadian National-Level Cohort Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 120(5): 708-714, 2012

Risk of nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in relation to long-term exposure to low concentrations of fine particulate matter: a Canadian national-level cohort study. Environmental Health Perspectives 120(5): 708-714, 2012

Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. JAMA 287(9): 1132-1141, 2002

Long-term ambient fine particulate matter air pollution and lung cancer in a large cohort of never-smokers. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 184(12): 1374-1381, 2011

Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 26(3): 428-430, 2017

Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 26(3): 428-430, 2017

Cardiovascular remodeling in response to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution. Circulation. Heart Failure 5(4): 452-461, 2012

Effect of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter on lung function decline and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Taiwan: a longitudinal, cohort study. Lancet. Planetary Health 2(3): E114-E125, 2018

Association between Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Mortality in a South Korean National Cohort: Comparison across Different Exposure Assessment Approaches. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14(10):, 2017

Short-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution Is Preferentially Associated With the Risk of ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Events. Journal of the American Heart Association 4(12):, 2015

Long-term exposure of fine particulate matter air pollution and incident atrial fibrillation in the general population: A nationwide cohort study. International Journal of Cardiology 283: 178-183, 2019

Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution and type 2 diabetes mellitus in elderly: A cohort study in Hong Kong. Environment International 113: 350-356, 2018

Vascular responses to long- and short-term exposure to fine particulate matter: MESA Air (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution). Journal of the American College of Cardiology 60(21): 2158-2166, 2012

Long-term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Nonaccidental and Cause-specific Mortality in a Large National Cohort of Chinese Men. Environmental Health Perspectives 125(11): 117002, 2017