+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in commercial swine herds is associated with disinfectant and zinc usage

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in commercial swine herds is associated with disinfectant and zinc usage

Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81(8): 2690-2695

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originating from swine is concerning for public health, but an understanding of the emergence and persistence of MRSA in nursery herds is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine whether MRSA in nursery pigs is associated with particular herd-level parameters, including the use of antimicrobials, disinfectants, and heavy metals, which may be driving the selection and persistence of antimicrobial resistance. Nasal cultures for MRSA were completed for 390 pigs from 26 farms at the end of the suckling phase and again at 3 weeks postweaning. Herd-level information was collected, and a random subset of MRSA isolates was screened for resistance to zinc and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Multivariate analysis revealed that in-feed concentrations of zinc (P < 0.001) and frequent disinfection of nursery pens (P < 0.001) are associated with MRSA shedding in nursery pigs. Furthermore, 62.5% (25/40) of MRSA isolates carried the zinc resistance gene czrC and demonstrated decreased susceptibility to zinc. All MRSA isolates carried at least 1 QAC resistance gene. The most common genotype was qacG qacH smr, which occurred in 32.5% (13/40) of isolates. Seven isolates (17.5%) demonstrated a significant tolerance to benzalkonium chloride, indicating a potential to survive commercial QAC exposure in the presence of organic matter. Overall, these findings indicate that high levels of in-feed zinc and QAC-based disinfectants are important drivers in the selection and persistence of MRSA in commercial swine herds, and these agents may be coselecting for other antimicrobial resistance genes.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 058303535

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 25662976

DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00036-15

Related references

Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cattle herds, related swine farms, and humans in contact with herds. Journal of Dairy Science 100(1): 608-619, 2016

Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among large commercial pig herds in South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 85(1): E1-E4, 2018

The human clone ST22 SCCmec IV methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from swine herds and wild primates in Nepal: is man the common source?. Fems Microbiology Ecology 94(5): -, 2018

Investigation of the Presence of Disinfectant Resistance Genes qacA/B in Nosocomial Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates and Evaluation of Their In Vitro Disinfectant Susceptibilities. Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni 47(1): 1-10, 2016

Decreased susceptibility to zinc chloride is associated with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 in Danish swine. Veterinary Microbiology 142(3-4): 455-457, 2010

Detection of the disinfectant-resistant gene and antibiotic-resistant genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with multidrug resistance. Zhongguo Kangshengsu Zazhi 30(5): 270-273, 2005

Zinc Resistance within Swine-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in the United States Is Associated with Multilocus Sequence Type Lineage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 83(15): -, 2017

The origin of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate at a neonatal ward in Sweden-possible horizontal transfer of a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 14(11): 1048-1056, 2008

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization is a poor predictor of intensive care unit-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections requiring antibiotic treatment. Critical Care Medicine 38(10): 1991-1995, 2010

Frequency of disinfectant resistance genes in pediatric strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 34(12): 1326-1327, 2014

Use of atmospheric non-thermal plasma as a disinfectant for objects contaminated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. American Journal of Infection Control 37(9): 729-733, 2010

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and risk of subsequent infection in critically ill children: importance of preventing nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission. Clinical Infectious Diseases 53(9): 853-859, 2012

Next-Generation Sequence Analysis Reveals Transfer of Methicillin Resistance to a Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strain That Subsequently Caused a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Outbreak: a Descriptive Study. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 55(9): 2808-2816, 2017

Should cardiac surgery be delayed among carriers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to reduce methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-related morbidity by preoperative decolonisation?. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 39(1): 68-74, 2011

In vitro transfer of methicillin resistance determinants mecA from methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Bmc Microbiology 17(1): 83-83, 2017