Dietary Intake and Food Sources of Niacin, Riboflavin, Thiamin and Vitamin B₆ in a Representative Sample of the Spanish Population. the Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain (ANIBES) Study †
Mielgo-Ayuso, J.; Aparicio-Ugarriza, R.; Olza, J.; Aranceta-Bartrina, J.; Gil, Án.; Ortega, R.M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Varela-Moreiras, G.; González-Gross, M.
ISSN/ISBN: 2072-6643 PMID: 29966236 DOI: 10.3390/nu10070846
Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B₆ are essential micronutrients that are mainly involved in energy metabolism; they may prevent the occurrence of developmental abnormalities and chronic degenerative and neoplastic diseases. The aim was to analyze dietary intake and food sources of those four nutrients in subjects (n = 2009) aged 9⁻75 years old from the Spanish ANIBES (Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain) study. Dietary data were collected by means of a validated, photo-based three-day dietary food record. Underreporting was analysed according to the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA, Parma, Italy) protocol. Mean (max⁻min) reported intake for the whole population of thiamin was 1.17 ± 0.02 mg/day, (0.30⁻3.44 mg/day), riboflavin 1.44 ± 0.02 mg/day, (0.37⁻3.54 mg/day), niacin 29.1 ± 0.2 mg/day (6.7⁻109 mg/day), and vitamin B₆ 1.54 ± 0.01 mg/day (0.28⁻9.30 mg/day). The main sources of intake for thiamin, niacin, and vitamin B₆ were meat and meat products, and for riboflavin were milk and dairy products. An elevated percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population meets the EFSA recommended intakes for thiamin (71.2%), riboflavin (72.0%), niacin (99.0%), and vitamin B₆ (77.2%).