Native vitamin D in dialysis patients
Delanaye, P.; Bouquegneau, A.; Krzesinski, J.-M.; Cavalier, Ét.; Jean, G.; Urena-Torres, P.; Souberbielle, J.-C.
Nephrologie and Therapeutique 11(1): 5-15
ISSN/ISBN: 1872-9177 PMID: 25597001 DOI: 10.1016/j.nephro.2014.10.004
Chronic kidney disease is frequent and usually responsible of mineral and bone disorder. These abnormalities lead to increased morbidity and mortality. To become active, native vitamin D needs a first hydroxylation in the liver, and a second one in the kidney. Next to its action on bone metabolism, vitamin D also possesses pleiotropic actions on cardiovascular, immune and neurological systems as well as antineoplastic activities. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is also associated with a decrease in vitamin D activity by mechanisms including the increase of plasma phosphate concentration, secretion of FGF-23 and decrease in 1α-hydroxylase activity. The prevalence of 25 hydroxy-vitamin D deficiency depends on the chosen cut-off value to define this lack. Currently it is well established that a patient has to be substituted when 25 hydroxy-vitamin D level is under 30 ng/mL. The use and monitoring of 1.25 hydroxy-vitamin D is still not recommended in routine practice. The goals of vitamin D treatment in case of ESRD are to substitute the deficiency and to prevent or treat hyperparathyroidism. Interest of native vitamin D in first intention is now well demonstrated. This review article describes the vitamin D metabolism and physiology and also the treatment for vitamin D deficiency in ESRD population.