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Differential immunosuppression by inhibiting PLA2 affects virulence of Xenorhabdus hominickii and Photorhabdus temperata temperata

Differential immunosuppression by inhibiting PLA2 affects virulence of Xenorhabdus hominickii and Photorhabdus temperata temperata

Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 157: 136-146

ISSN/ISBN: 0022-2011

PMID: 29802883

DOI: 10.1016/j.jip.2018.05.009

Immunity negatively influences bacterial pathogenicity. Eicosanoids mediate both cellular and humoral immune responses in insects. This study tested a hypothesis that differential bacterial virulence of Xenorhabdus/Photorhabdus is dependent on their inhibitory activity against phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. P. temperata subsp. temperata ('Ptt') was more than 40 times more potent than X. hominickii ('Xh'). Although both bacteria suppressed cellular immune responses, Ptt infection suppressed hemocyte nodule formation much more than Xh infection. Their differential immunosuppression appeared to be induced by their secondary metabolites because organic extracts of Ptt-cultured broth exhibited higher inhibitory activities against cellular immune responses than Xn-cultured broth extracts. Humoral immune responses were analyzed by measuring expression levels of 11 antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes. Among inducible AMPs in hemocytes and fat body, higher number and more kinds of AMPs exhibited lower expression levels in Ptt infection than those in Xh infection. Suppressed immune responses induced by Ptt or Xh infection were significantly rescued by the addition of a catalytic product of PLA2, suggesting that PLA2 was a common inhibitory target. In fact, Ptt infection inhibited PLA2 activity more strongly than Xh infection. RNA interference of a PLA2 gene decreased its expression and significantly increased bacterial virulence. Moreover, addition of PLA2 inhibitor to Xh infection enhanced its virulence, similar to virulence level of Ptt infection. These results suggest that variation in Xenorhabdus/Photorhabdus bacterial virulence can be explained by their differential inhibitory activities against host insect PLA2.

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Accession: 058421815

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