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Disease and age pattern of hospitalisation and associated costs in India: 1995-2014



Disease and age pattern of hospitalisation and associated costs in India: 1995-2014



Bmj Open 8(1): E016990



The prime objective of this study is to examine the trends of disease and age pattern of hospitalisation and associated costs in India during 1995-2014. Present study used nationally representative data on morbidity and healthcare from the 52nd (1995) and 71st (2014) rounds of the National Sample Survey. A total of 120 942 and 65 932 households were surveyed in 1995 and 2014, respectively. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression analyses and decomposition analyses were used in examining the changes in patterns of hospitalisation and associated costs. Hospitalisation rates and costs per hospitalisation (out-of-pocket expenditure) were estimated for selected diseases and in four broad categories: communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), injuries and others. All the costs are presented at 2014 prices in US$. Hospitalisation rate in India has increased from 1661 in 1995 to 3699 in 2014 (per 100 000 population). It has more than doubled across all age groups. Hospitalisation among children was primarily because of communicable diseases, while NCDs were the leading cause of hospitalisation for the 40+ population. Costs per hospitalisation have increased from US$177 in 1995 to US$316 in 2014 (an increase of 79%). Costs per hospitalisation for NCDs in 2014 were US$471 compared with US$175 for communicable diseases. It was highest for cancer inpatients (US$942) followed by heart diseases (US$674). Age is the significant predictor of hospitalisation for all the selected diseases. Decomposition results showed that about three-fifth of the increase in unconditional costs per hospitalisation was due to increase in mean hospital costs, and the other two-fifth was due to increase in hospitalisation rates. There has been more than twofold increase in hospitalisation rates in India during the last two decades, and significantly higher rates were observed among infants and older adults. Increasing hospitalisation rates and costs per hospitalisation are contributing substantially to the rising healthcare costs in India.

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Accession: 058427204

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PMID: 29371266

DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016990


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