+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Disease and age pattern of hospitalisation and associated costs in India: 1995-2014

Disease and age pattern of hospitalisation and associated costs in India: 1995-2014

Bmj Open 8(1): E016990

The prime objective of this study is to examine the trends of disease and age pattern of hospitalisation and associated costs in India during 1995-2014. Present study used nationally representative data on morbidity and healthcare from the 52nd (1995) and 71st (2014) rounds of the National Sample Survey. A total of 120 942 and 65 932 households were surveyed in 1995 and 2014, respectively. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression analyses and decomposition analyses were used in examining the changes in patterns of hospitalisation and associated costs. Hospitalisation rates and costs per hospitalisation (out-of-pocket expenditure) were estimated for selected diseases and in four broad categories: communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), injuries and others. All the costs are presented at 2014 prices in US$. Hospitalisation rate in India has increased from 1661 in 1995 to 3699 in 2014 (per 100 000 population). It has more than doubled across all age groups. Hospitalisation among children was primarily because of communicable diseases, while NCDs were the leading cause of hospitalisation for the 40+ population. Costs per hospitalisation have increased from US$177 in 1995 to US$316 in 2014 (an increase of 79%). Costs per hospitalisation for NCDs in 2014 were US$471 compared with US$175 for communicable diseases. It was highest for cancer inpatients (US$942) followed by heart diseases (US$674). Age is the significant predictor of hospitalisation for all the selected diseases. Decomposition results showed that about three-fifth of the increase in unconditional costs per hospitalisation was due to increase in mean hospital costs, and the other two-fifth was due to increase in hospitalisation rates. There has been more than twofold increase in hospitalisation rates in India during the last two decades, and significantly higher rates were observed among infants and older adults. Increasing hospitalisation rates and costs per hospitalisation are contributing substantially to the rising healthcare costs in India.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 058427204

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 29371266

DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016990

Related references

Hospitalisation trends in India from serial cross-sectional nationwide surveys: 1995 to 2014. Bmj Open 7(12): E014188, 2018

Inequity in out-of-pocket payments for hospitalisation in India: Evidence from the National Sample Surveys, 1995-2014. Social Science and Medicine 201: 136-147, 2018

Age and sex pattern of cardiovascular mortality, hospitalisation and associated cost in India. Plos One 8(5): E62134, 2013

A Description of the Temporal Pattern of Out-of-Pocket Expenditure Related to Iranian Healthcare Services during 1995-2014. Iranian Journal of Public Health 47(10): 1552-1557, 2018

Factors associated with hospitalisation costs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 22(4): 458-463, 2018

Horizontal inequity in outpatient care use and untreated morbidity: evidence from nationwide surveys in India between 1995 and 2014. Health Policy and Planning 32(7): 969-979, 2017

Effect of a chronic disease management service for patients with diabetes on hospitalisation and acute care costs. Australian Health Review 36(2): 205-212, 2012

Trends in stroke hospitalisation rates in Extremadura between 2002 and 2014: Changing the notion of stroke as a disease of the elderly. Neurologia 33(9): 561-569, 2016

A review of the causes of hospitalisation as a guide to pattern of disease amongst children in eastern Nigeria. Nigerian Medical Journal 7(2): 205-209, 1977

Association between human resources and risk of hospitalisation in end-stage renal disease outpatients receiving haemodialysis: a longitudinal cohort study using claim data during 2013-2014. Bmj Open 6(8): E011319, 2017

The hospitalisation costs and out-patient costs of fragility fractures. Women's Health Medicine 3(4): 149-151, 2006

Changing age-pattern of hospitalisation risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in men and women in Canada. Age and Ageing 34(4): 373-377, 2005

Healthcare costs of inflammatory bowel disease have shifted from hospitalisation and surgery towards anti-TNFα therapy: results from the COIN study. Gut 63(1): 72-79, 2014

volution du traitement de sortie aprs hospitalisation pour syndrome coronaire aigu en France entre 1995 et 2000 : donnes des tudes Usik 1995, Prvenir 1 et 2 et Usic 2000. Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie 52(1): 1-6, 2003

Two-year vascular hospitalisation rates and associated costs in patients at risk of atherothrombosis in France and Germany: highest burden for peripheral arterial disease. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 43(2): 198-207, 2012