Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation affects pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Jamilian, M.; Samimi, M.; Kolahdooz, F.; Khalaji, F.; Razavi, M.; Asemi, Z.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine: the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 29(4): 669-675
This study was designed to assess the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory factors, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GDM). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 56 women with GDM. Subjects were randomly selected to receive either 1000 mg omega-3 fatty acid supplements (containing 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg docosahexanoic acid) (n = 27) or a placebo (n = 27) for 6 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at study baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention to quantify biochemical variables. Newborn's weight, height, head circumference, Apgar score, and hyperbilirubinemia were determined. At the end of the 6 weeks, taking omega-3 fatty acid significantly decreased serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (change from baseline: -245.1 ± 1570.5 versus + 913.9 ± 2329.4 ng/mL, p = 0.03) and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations (-0.4 ± 1.3 versus + 0.6±2.3, p = 0.04) compared with the placebo. Supplementation with omega-3 had a low incidence of hyperbilirubinemiain newborns (7.7% versus 33.3%, p = 0.02) and decreased newborns' hospitalization rate (7.7% versus 33.3%, p = 0.02). Taken together, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in GDM women had beneficial effects on maternal serum hs-CRP, plasma MDA levels, incidence of newborn's hyperbilirubinemia, and hospitalization.