+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Optimal serum and red blood cell folate concentrations in women of reproductive age for prevention of neural tube defects: World Health Organization guidelines



Optimal serum and red blood cell folate concentrations in women of reproductive age for prevention of neural tube defects: World Health Organization guidelines



Mmwr. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 64(15): 421-423



Neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida, anencephaly, and encephalocele are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that occur during the first month of pregnancy when the neural tube fails to close completely. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies have shown that adequate daily consumption of folic acid before and during early pregnancy considerably reduces the risk for NTDs. The U.S. Public Health Service recommends that women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg of folic acid daily for NTD prevention. Furthermore, fortification of staple foods (e.g., wheat flour) with folic acid has decreased folate-sensitive NTD prevalence in multiple settings and is a highly cost-effective intervention.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 058466995

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 25905896


Related references

Changes in folate supplementation, and in serum and red cell folate levels in antenatal patients over the course of a health promotion project for the prevention of neural tube defects. Australian and new Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 37(3): 267-271, 1997

Population red blood cell folate concentrations for prevention of neural tube defects: Bayesian model. Bmj 349: G4554, 2014

Defining the plasma folate concentration associated with the red blood cell folate concentration threshold for optimal neural tube defects prevention: a population-based, randomized trial of folic acid supplementation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 109(5): 1452-1461, 2019

Maternal and fetal serum and red blood cell folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in pregnancies affected by neural tube defects. Zeitschrift für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie 200(5): 176-180, 1996

Response of red blood cell folate to intervention: implications for folate recommendations for the prevention of neural tube defects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(5 Suppl): 1308s-1311s, 2000

Modeling the impact of folic acid fortification and supplementation on red blood cell folate concentrations and predicted neural tube defect risk in the United States: have we reached optimal prevention?. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 107(6): 1027-1034, 2018

Folic acid fortified milk increases blood folate to concentrations associated with a very low risk of neural tube defects in Singaporean women of childbearing age. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25(1): 62-70, 2016

Awareness and use of folic acid, and blood folate concentrations among pregnant women in northern China--an area with a high prevalence of neural tube defects. Reproductive Toxicology 22(3): 431-436, 2006

U.S. women of childbearing age who are at possible increased risk of a neural tube defect-affected pregnancy due to suboptimal red blood cell folate concentrations, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007 to 2012. Birth Defects Research. Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology 103(6): 517-526, 2015

Effect of increasing dietary folate on red-cell folate: implications for prevention of neural tube defects. Lancet 347(9002): 657-659, 1996

Maternal-fetal red blood cell folate concentrations and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C fwdarw T mutation in pregnancies with neural tube defects. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 176(1 Part 2): S69, 1997

Maternal serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in pregnancies associated with neural tube defects. Archives of Disease in Childhood 60(7): 660-665, 1985

Evaluation of the level of awareness of the role of folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defects amongst women of reproductive age in a tertiary health institution. Nigerian Journal of Medicine 20(2): 207-212, 2011

Red Blood Cell Folate Insufficiency among nonpregnant Women of Childbearing age in Guatemala 2009 to 2010: Prevalence and predicted Neural Tube Defects risk. Birth Defects Research. Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology 106(7): 587-595, 2016

Plasma and red blood cell folate levels among women in their first trimester of pregnancy from rural areas with high or low prevalence of neural tube defects, China. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 27(8): 659-663, 2006