+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Pencil It in: Exploring the Feasibility of Hand-Drawn Pencil Electrochemical Sensors and Their Direct Comparison to Screen-Printed Electrodes



Pencil It in: Exploring the Feasibility of Hand-Drawn Pencil Electrochemical Sensors and Their Direct Comparison to Screen-Printed Electrodes



Biosensors 6(3):



We explore the fabrication, physicochemical characterisation (SEM, Raman, EDX and XPS) and electrochemical application of hand-drawn pencil electrodes (PDEs) upon an ultra-flexible polyester substrate; investigating the number of draws (used for their fabrication), the pencil grade utilised (HB to 9B) and the electrochemical properties of an array of batches (i.e, pencil boxes). Electrochemical characterisation of the PDEs, using different batches of HB grade pencils, is undertaken using several inner- and outer-sphere redox probes and is critically compared to screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the electrochemical sensing of dopamine and acetaminophen using PDEs, which are found to exhibit competitive limits of detection (3σ) upon comparison to SPEs. Nonetheless, it is important to note that a clear lack of reproducibility was demonstrated when utilising these PDEs fabricated using the HB pencils from different batches. We also explore the suitability and feasibility of a pencil-drawn reference electrode compared to screen-printed alternatives, to see if one can draw the entire sensing platform. This article reports a critical assessment of these PDEs against that of its screen-printed competitors, questioning the overall feasibility of PDEs' implementation as a sensing platform.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 058521736

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 27589815

DOI: 10.3390/bios6030045


Related references

Pencil it in: pencil drawn electrochemical sensing platforms. Analyst 141(13): 4055-4064, 2016

Pencil-drawn paper supported electrodes as simple electrochemical detectors for paper-based fluidic devices. Electrophoresis 34(14): 2085-2091, 2013

Comparison of backing materials of screen printed electrochemical sensors for direct determination of the sub-nanomolar concentration of lead in seawater. Talanta 182: 549-557, 2018

Comparison of backing materials of screen printed electrochemical sensors for direct determination of the sub-nanomolar concentration of lead in seawater. Talanta 182: 549-557, 2018

Electrochemical Sensors Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes: The Use of Phthalocyanine Derivatives for Application in VFA Detection. Biosensors 6(3):, 2016

Nafion® modified-screen printed gold electrodes and their carbon nanostructuration for electrochemical sensors applications. Talanta 107: 376-381, 2013

Investigations into the use of screen-printed carbon electrodes as templates for electrochemical sensors and sonochemically fabricated microelectrode arrays. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 141(2): 581-591, 2009

Electrochemical characterization of screen-printed carbonaceous electrodes for the determination of peroxidase activity in novel screen-printed flow-through modules. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 372(2): 240-247, 2002

Paper-Based Disposable Molecular Sensor Constructed from Oxide Nanowires, Cellulose Nanofibers, and Pencil-Drawn Electrodes. Acs Applied Materials and Interfaces 11(16): 15044-15050, 2019

Simple pencil-drawn paper-based devices for one-spot electrochemical detection of electroactive species in oil samples. Electrophoresis 36(16): 1830-1836, 2015

Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Commercial Tablets Using Pencil Drawn Electrochemical Paper-based Analytical Devices. Analytical Sciences 34(1): 91-95, 2018

Nylon 6,6 modified screen printed carbon electrodes as electrochemical sensors for rapid chlorothalonil determination in water samples using differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes 54(4): 294-302, 2019

In situ electrochemical determination of free Cu(Ii) ions in biodiesel using screen-printed electrodes: Direct correlation with oxidation stability. Fuel 234: 1452-1458, 2018

Electrochemical Determination of Bisphenol A with Pencil Graphite Electrodes Modified with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Fe(II) Phthalocyaninetetrasulfonates. Analytical Sciences 32(8): 881-886, 2016

Iridium Oxide-reduced Graphene Oxide Nanohybrid Thin Film Modified Screen-printed Electrodes as Disposable Electrochemical Paper Microfluidic pH Sensors. Journal of Visualized Experiments 2016(117):, 2016