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Preparation, characterization, and in vitro cytotoxicity of COM and COD crystals with various sizes



Preparation, characterization, and in vitro cytotoxicity of COM and COD crystals with various sizes



Materials Science and Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications 57: 147-156



Calcium oxalate crystals in urine often differ in size and crystal phase between healthy humans and patients with kidney stones. In this work, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) with sizes of about 50 nm, 100 nm, 1 μm, 3 μm, and 10 μm were prepared by varying reactant concentration, reaction temperature, solvent, mixing manner, and stirring speed. These crystals mainly had a smooth surface and no obvious pore structure, except COM-1 μm. In cell culture medium, the zeta potential of crystals became increasingly negative with increasing size, and the absolute value of zeta potential of COD was greater than the same-sized COM. Results of cell viability and PI staining assays showed that the order of injury degree in African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells caused by different sizes of COD was COD-50 nm>COD-100 nm>COD-1 μm>COD-3 μm>COD-10 μm, and that of different sizes of COM was COM-1 μm>COM-50~COM-100 nm>COM-3 μm>COM-10 μm. COM-1 μm presented the highest cytotoxicity in Vero cells, which was associated with its rougher surface, larger specific surface area (SBET), and larger pore volume. Overall, these findings indicated that the physical properties of crystals play an important role in their cytotoxicity.

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Accession: 058609155

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PMID: 26354249

DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.07.032


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