Protein Corona Formation on Magnetite Nanoparticles: Effects of Culture Medium Composition, and Its Consequences on Superparamagnetic Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity
Mbeh, D.A.; Javanbakht, T.; Tabet, L.; Merhi, Y.; Maghni, K.; Sacher, E.; Yahia, L.H.
Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 11(5): 828-840
ISSN/ISBN: 1550-7033 PMID: 26349395 DOI: 10.1166/jbn.2015.2000
The physicochemical properties and potential cytotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) are significantly influenced by their inter- action with proteins, which results in corona formation. Here, we have determined whether corona formation, resulting from interactions between superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and different cell culture media, may have consequences for driving NP toxic effects. To address this issue, complementary methods were used. The deter- mination of the hydrodynamic size distribution by ζ (zeta) potential measurement indicated that SPIONs were negatively charged under all conditions but that the actual charge was differed with the cell culture medium used. In vitro protein adsorption studies were carried out using the Bradford protein assay and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The Bradford assay revealed that the concentration of unadsorbed proteins and other biomolecules decreased when the SPION concentration increased. FTIR showed that the proteins were, indeed, adsorbed onto the NP surface. This was followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF-SIMS), to identify the adsorbed proteins. Ultimately, three different cell viability assays led to the conclusion that the SPIONs were not toxic for all the concentrations used here. In summary, we found that corona formation on the SPIONs depends on the composition of the culture media but has no consequence for nanotoxicity. We have shown that the application of complementary methods has provided novel insights into SPION/protein interactions.