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Proton Pump Inhibitors Increase Risk for Hepatic Encephalopathy in Patients With Cirrhosis in A Population Study

Proton Pump Inhibitors Increase Risk for Hepatic Encephalopathy in Patients With Cirrhosis in A Population Study

Gastroenterology 152(1): 134-141

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious complication of cirrhosis and is associated with gut dysbiosis. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), frequently prescribed to patients with cirrhosis, can contribute to small-bowel bacterial overgrowth. We investigated whether PPI predisposes patients with cirrhosis to HE using a large database of patients. We performed a case-control study nested within a sample of Taiwan National Health Insurance beneficiaries (n = 1,000,000), followed up longitudinally from 1998 through 2011. Patients with cirrhosis and an occurrence of HE (n = 1166) were selected as the case cohort and matched to patients without HE (1:1, controls) for sex, enrollment time, end point time, follow-up period, and advanced cirrhosis. Information on prescribed drugs, drug dosage, supply days, and numbers of dispensed pills was extracted from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. PPI use was defined as more than 30 cumulative defined daily doses (cDDDs); PPI nonuse was defined as 30 cDDDs or fewer. We performed logistic regression analyses to estimate the association between PPI use and the occurrence of HE. Among patients with cirrhosis and an occurrence of HE, 38% (n = 445) had a history of PPI use before HE occurrence. We observed a relationship between dose of PPI taken and HE risk. The confounder-adjusted odd ratios were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.84), 1.51 (95% CI, 1.11-2.06), and 3.01 (95% CI, 1.78-5.10) for patients with 30-120 cDDDs, 120-365 cDDDs, and more than 365 cDDDs, respectively, compared with PPI nonusers. All categories of PPIs, except rabeprazole, were associated with an increased risk of HE. Based on an analysis of data from Taiwan National Health Insurance beneficiaries, we found that use of PPIs in patients with cirrhosis increases the risk for HE; risk increases with dose. It therefore is important for health care providers to carefully consider prolonged PPI use by patients with cirrhosis.

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Accession: 058654451

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 27639806

DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.09.007

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