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Ranking of factors determining potassium mass balance in bicarbonate haemodialysis



Ranking of factors determining potassium mass balance in bicarbonate haemodialysis



Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation 30(3): 505-513



One of the most important pathogenetic factors involved in the onset of intradialysis arrhytmias is the alteration in electrolyte concentration, particularly potassium (K(+)). Two studies were performed: Study A was designed to investigate above all the isolated effect of the factor time t on intradialysis K(+) mass balance (K(+)MB): 11 stable prevalent Caucasian anuric patients underwent one standard (∼4 h) and one long-hour (∼8 h) bicarbonate haemodialysis (HD) session. The latter were pair-matched as far as the dialysate and blood volume processed (90 L) and volume of ultrafiltration are concerned. Study B was designed to identify and rank the other factors determining intradialysis K(+)MB: 63 stable prevalent Caucasian anuric patients underwent one 4-h standard bicarbonate HD session. Dialysate K(+) concentration was 2.0 mmol/L in both studies. Blood samples were obtained from the inlet blood tubing immediately before the onset of dialysis and at t60, t120, t180 min and at end of the 4- and 8-h sessions for the measurement of plasma K(+), blood bicarbonates and blood pH. Additional blood samples were obtained at t360 min for the 8 h sessions. Direct dialysate quantification was utilized for K(+)MBs. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for K(+) measurements. Study A: mean K(+)MBs were significantly higher in the 8-h sessions (4 h: -88.4 ± 23.2 SD mmol versus 8 h: -101.9 ± 32.2 mmol; P = 0.02). Bivariate linear regression analyses showed that only mean plasma K(+), area under the curve (AUC) of the hourly inlet dialyser diffusion concentration gradient of K(+) (hcgAUCK(+)) and AUC of blood bicarbonates and mean blood bicarbonates were significantly related to K(+)MB in both 4- and 8-h sessions. A multiple linear regression output with K(+)MB as dependent variable showed that only mean plasma K(+), hcgAUCK(+) and duration of HD sessions per se remained statistically significant. Study B: mean K(+)MBs were -86.7 ± 22.6 mmol. Bivariate linear regression analyses showed that only mean plasma K(+), hcgAUCK(+) and mean blood bicarbonates were significantly related to K(+)MB. Again, only mean plasma K(+) and hcgAUCK(+) predicted K(+)MB at the multiple linear regression analysis. Our studies enabled to establish the ranking of factors determining intradialysis K(+)MB: plasma K(+) → dialysate K(+) gradient is the main determinant; acid-base balance plays a much less important role. The duration of HD session per se is an independent determinant of K(+)MB.

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Accession: 058690158

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 25500805

DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfu376


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