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Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection and quantification of Edwardsiella tarda, Edwardsiella piscicida, and Edwardsiella piscicida-like species in catfish tissues and pond water

Reichley, S.R.; Ware, C.; Greenway, T.E.; Wise, D.J.; Griffin, M.J.

Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation: Official Publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians Inc 27(2): 130-139

2015


ISSN/ISBN: 1943-4936
PMID: 25613040
DOI: 10.1177/1040638714566672
Accession: 058702961

Researchers have proposed the adoption of 3 distinct genetic taxa among bacteria previously classified as Edwardsiella tarda; namely E. tarda, E. piscicida, and a taxon presently termed E. piscicida-like. Individual real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were developed, based on published primers, for E. tarda, E. piscicida, and E. piscicida-like sp. to provide rapid quantitative confirmatory tests for these phenotypically ambiguous bacteria. The qPCR assays were shown to be repeatable and reproducible, with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. Each assay showed a linear dynamic range covering 8 orders of magnitude and a sensitivity limit of 5 copies of target DNA in a 15-µL reaction. In addition, each assay was found specific to their respective targets with no observed amplification from nontarget organisms, including the closely related E. ictaluri and E. hoshinae. Under the conditions used in this study, the 3 assays had a quantifiable limit ranging from 10(3) (E. piscicida) to 10(2) (E. piscicida-like and E. tarda) colony forming units in kidney tissue biopsies (approximately 25 mg), pond water samples (35 mL), and broth culture (20 μL). In experimental challenges, the assays were able to detect their respective targets in both clinically and subclinically infected channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings. In addition to quantifying target bacteria from various substrates, the assays provide rapid identification, differentiation, and confirmation of the phenotypically indistinguishable E. tarda, E. piscicida, and E. piscicida-like sp., a valuable tool for diagnostic assessments.

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