Right atrial pressure/pulmonary artery wedge pressure ratio: A more specific predictor of survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension
Fares, W.H.; Bellumkonda, L.; Tonelli, A.R.; Carson, S.S.; Hassoun, P.M.; Trow, T.K.; Herzog, E.L.; Kaminski, N.; Kholdani, C.A.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, Y.; Hammel, J.P.; Dweik, R.A.
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation: the Official Publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 35(6): 760-767
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive, fatal disease. Current prognostic models are not ideal, and identifying more accurate prognostic variables is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative prognostic value of the right atrial pressure/pulmonary artery wedge pressure (RAP/PAWP) ratio in PAH patients. We hypothesized that the RAP/PAWP ratio is more predictive of survival than any of the other measured or calculated hemodynamic variables. We performed a secondary analysis of a PAH cohort (Cohort 1) and validated our results in a separate cohort (Cohort 2). Cohort 1 included primarily patients enrolled in prospective, short-term, randomized clinical trials and subsequently followed long term. Cohort 2 included patients prospectively enrolled in a PAH registry at a tertiary PAH referral center. Cohort 1 (n = 847) and Cohort 2 (n = 697) had a mean age of 47 and 54 years, respectively. Most were female (78% and 73%, respectively), Caucasian (83% and 82%), with advanced functional class disease status (New York Heart Association Functional Class III/IV 85% and 68%) and with significantly elevated hemodynamics (mean RAP/PAWP ratio: 1.2 and 1.0; pulmonary vascular resistance: 13.5 and 9.4 Wood units). RAP/PAWP ratio indicated a 1-year hazard ratio of 1.44 (p = 0.0001) and 1.35, respectively (p < 0.0001), and was the most consistently predictive hemodynamic variable across the 2 cohorts. These results remain valid even when adjusted for other covariables in multivariable regression models. The RAP/PAWP ratio is a more specific predictor of survival than any other hemodynamic variable, and we recommend that it be used in clinical prognostication and PAH predictive models.