+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Roles for Orexin/Hypocretin in the Control of Energy Balance and Metabolism

Roles for Orexin/Hypocretin in the Control of Energy Balance and Metabolism

Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 33: 137-156

The neuropeptide hypocretin is also commonly referred to as orexin, since its orexigenic action was recognized early. Orexin/hypocretin (OX) neurons project widely throughout the brain and the physiologic and behavioral functions of OX are much more complex than initially conceived based upon the stimulation of feeding. OX most notably controls functions relevant to attention, alertness, and motivation. OX also plays multiple crucial roles in the control of food intake, metabolism, and overall energy balance in mammals. OX signaling not only promotes food-seeking behavior upon short-term fasting to increase food intake and defend body weight, but, conversely, OX signaling also supports energy expenditure to protect against obesity. Furthermore, OX modulates the autonomic nervous system to control glucose metabolism, including during the response to hypoglycemia. Consistently, a variety of nutritional cues (including the hormones leptin and ghrelin) and metabolites (e.g., glucose, amino acids) control OX neurons. In this chapter, we review the control of OX neurons by nutritional/metabolic cues, along with our current understanding of the mechanisms by which OX and OX neurons contribute to the control of energy balance and metabolism.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 058791971

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 27909992

DOI: 10.1007/7854_2016_51

Related references

Roles of orexin/hypocretin in regulation of sleep/wakefulness and energy homeostasis. Sleep Medicine Reviews 9(4): 231-241, 2005

Orexin/hypocretin and histamine: distinct roles in the control of wakefulness demonstrated using knock-out mouse models. Journal of Neuroscience 29(46): 14423-14438, 2009

Orexin-A/Hypocretin-1 Mediates Cocaine-Seeking Behavior in the Posterior Paraventricular Nucleus of the Thalamus via Orexin/Hypocretin Receptor-2. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 359(2): 273-279, 2016

Hypocretin/Orexin neuropeptides: participation in the control of sleep-wakefulness cycle and energy homeostasis. Current Neuropharmacology 7(1): 50-59, 2009

Effects of IV and ICV hypocretin-1 (orexin A) in hypocretin receptor-2 gene mutated narcoleptic dogs and IV hypocretin-1 replacement therapy in a hypocretin-ligand-deficient narcoleptic dog. Sleep 26(8): 953-959, 2004

Multiple roles for orexin/hypocretin in addiction. Progress in Brain Research 198: 79-121, 2012

Hypocretin/orexin: maintenance of wakefulness and a multiplicity of other roles. Sleep Medicine Reviews 9(4): 227-230, 2005

Intracellular energy status regulates activity in hypocretin/orexin neurones a link between energy and behavioral states. 2011

Intracellular energy status regulates activity in hypocretin/orexin neurones: a link between energy and behavioural states. Journal of Physiology 589(17): 4157-4166, 2016

Hypocretin/orexin and energy expenditure. Acta Physiologica 198(3): 303-312, 2010

Hypocretin/Orexin: a molecular link between sleep, energy regulation, and pleasure. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 19(4): 413-419, 2007

Low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin (orexin) and altered energy homeostasis in human narcolepsy. Annals of Neurology 51(5): 660; Author Reply 660-1, 2002

Orexin/hypocretin: a neuropeptide at the interface of sleep, energy homeostasis, and reward system. Pharmacological Reviews 61(2): 162-176, 2010

Hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin and neuropeptide Y: divergent interaction with energy depletion and leptin. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 258(1): 119-122, 1999