+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Size doesn't matter, sex does: a test for boldness in sister species of Brachyrhaphis fishes

Size doesn't matter, sex does: a test for boldness in sister species of Brachyrhaphis fishes

Ecology and Evolution 4(22): 4361-4369

The effect of divergent natural selection on the evolution of behavioral traits has long been a focus of behavioral ecologists. Predation, due to its ubiquity in nature and strength as a selective agent, has been considered an important environmental driver of behavior. Predation is often confounded with other environmental factors that could also play a role in behavioral evolution. For example, environments that contain predators are often more ecologically complex and "risky" (i.e., exposed and dangerous). Previous work shows that individuals from risky environments are often more bold, active, and explorative than those from low-risk environments. To date, most comparative studies of environmentally driven behavioral divergence are limited to comparisons among populations within species that occur in divergent selective environments but neglect comparisons between species following speciation. This limits our understanding of how behavior evolves post-speciation. The Central American live-bearing fish genus Brachyrhaphis provides an ideal system for examining the relationship between selective environments and behavior, within and between species. Here, we test for differences in boldness between sister species B. roseni and B. terrabensis that occur in streams with and without piscivorous predators, respectively. We found that species do differ in boldness, with species that occur with predators being bolder than those that do not. Within each species, we found that sexes differed in boldness, with males being bolder than females. We also tested for a relationship between size (a surrogate for metabolic rate) and boldness, but found no size effects. Therefore, sex, not size, affects boldness. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that complex and risky environments favor individuals with more bold behavioral traits, but they are not consistent with the hypothesis that size (and therefore metabolic rate) drives divergence in boldness. Finally, our results provide evidence that behavioral trait divergence continues even after speciation is complete.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 058863404

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 25540696

DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1304

Related references

Size matters a test of boldness in eight populations of the poeciliid Brachyraphis Brachyrhaphis episcopi. Animal Behaviour 68(6): 1325-1329, 2004

Divergent predation environment between two sister species of livebearing fishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) predicts boldness, activity, and exploration behavior. Revista de Biologia Tropical 65(1): 267-277, 2018

Sympatric populations of sister species of Brachyrhaphis. Journal of Fish Biology 86(3): 1163-1170, 2015

Correlation between boldness and body mass in natural populations of the poeciliid Brachyrhaphis episcopi. Journal of Fish Biology 71(6): 1590-1601, 2007

In situ examination of boldness-shyness traits in the tropical poeciliid, Brachyraphis Brachyrhaphis episcopi. Animal Behaviour 70(5): 1003-1009, 2005

Body size and ecological diversification in a sister species pair of triplefin fishes. Evolutionary Ecology 22(4): 575-592, 2008

Morphological divergence driven by predation environment within and between species of Brachyrhaphis fishes. Plos One 9(2): E90274-E90274, 2014

Size doesn't matter! The importance of size variability in coated vesicles. Developmental Cell 23(1): 9-10, 2012

Size (mostly) doesn't matter: the role of set size in object substitution masking. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 76(6): 1620-1629, 2015

Size doesn't matter: emotional content does not determine the size of objects in children's drawings. Psychology Crime & Law 16(6): 459-476, 2010

Size doesn't matter. Nature 399(6738): 0-1, 1999

Size Doesn't Matter!. Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology 18(4): 299-300, 2011

Size really doesn't matter. European Eating Disorders Review 11(5): 397-404, 2003

Size doesn't matter. Genome Biology 2(3): Comment1003-Comment1003, 2001

Size doesn't matter!. Bmj Case Reports 2009: -, 2009