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Spatial perspectives in the redox code-Mass spectrometric proteomics studies of moonlighting proteins



Spatial perspectives in the redox code-Mass spectrometric proteomics studies of moonlighting proteins



Mass Spectrometry Reviews 37(1): 81



The Redox Code involves specific, reversible oxidative changes in proteins that modulate protein tertiary structure, interactions, trafficking, and activity, and hence couple the proteome to the metabolic/oxidative state of cells. It is currently a major focus of study in cell biology. Recent studies of dynamic cellular spatial reorganization with MS-based subcellular-spatial-razor proteomics reveal that protein constituents of many subcellular structures, including mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, the plasma membrane, and the extracellular matrix, undergo changes in their subcellular abundance/distribution in response to oxidative stress. These proteins are components of a diverse variety of functional processes spatially distributed across cells. Many of the same proteins are involved in response to suppression of DNA replication indicate that oxidative stress is strongly intertwined with DNA replication/proliferation. Both are replete with networks of moonlighting proteins that show coordinated changes in subcellular location and that include primary protein actuators of the redox code involved in the processing of NAD+ /NADH, NADP+ /NADPH, Cys/CySS, and GSH/GSSG redox couples. Small groups of key proteins such as {KPNA2, KPNB1, PCNA, PTMA, SET} constitute "spatial switches" that modulate many nuclear processes. Much of the functional response involves subcellular protein trafficking, including nuclear import/export processes, vesicle-mediated trafficking, the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi pathway, chaperone-assisted processes, and other transport systems. This is not visible to measurements of total protein abundance by transcriptomics or proteomics. Comprehensive pictures of cellular function will require collection of data on the subcellular transport and local functions of many moonlighting proteins, especially of those with critical roles in spatial coordination across cells. The proteome-wide analysis of coordinated changes in abundance and trafficking of proteins offered by MS-based proteomics has a unique, crucial role to play in deciphering the complex adaptive systems that underlie cellular function. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev.

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Accession: 058883122

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PMID: 27186965

DOI: 10.1002/mas.21508


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