+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Sterol Synthesis in Diverse Bacteria

Sterol Synthesis in Diverse Bacteria

Frontiers in Microbiology 7: 990

Sterols are essential components of eukaryotic cells whose biosynthesis and function has been studied extensively. Sterols are also recognized as the diagenetic precursors of steranes preserved in sedimentary rocks where they can function as geological proxies for eukaryotic organisms and/or aerobic metabolisms and environments. However, production of these lipids is not restricted to the eukaryotic domain as a few bacterial species also synthesize sterols. Phylogenomic studies have identified genes encoding homologs of sterol biosynthesis proteins in the genomes of several additional species, indicating that sterol production may be more widespread in the bacterial domain than previously thought. Although the occurrence of sterol synthesis genes in a genome indicates the potential for sterol production, it provides neither conclusive evidence of sterol synthesis nor information about the composition and abundance of basic and modified sterols that are actually being produced. Here, we coupled bioinformatics with lipid analyses to investigate the scope of bacterial sterol production. We identified oxidosqualene cyclase (Osc), which catalyzes the initial cyclization of oxidosqualene to the basic sterol structure, in 34 bacterial genomes from five phyla (Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia) and in 176 metagenomes. Our data indicate that bacterial sterol synthesis likely occurs in diverse organisms and environments and also provides evidence that there are as yet uncultured groups of bacterial sterol producers. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and eukaryotic Osc sequences confirmed a complex evolutionary history of sterol synthesis in this domain. Finally, we characterized the lipids produced by Osc-containing bacteria and found that we could generally predict the ability to synthesize sterols. However, predicting the final modified sterol based on our current knowledge of sterol synthesis was difficult. Some bacteria produced demethylated and saturated sterol products even though they lacked homologs of the eukaryotic proteins required for these modifications emphasizing that several aspects of bacterial sterol synthesis are still completely unknown.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 058905074

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 27446030

DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00990

Related references

Inhibitions of sterol synthesis chemical synthesis properties and effects of 4 4 dimethyl 15 oxygenated sterols on sterol synthesis and on 3 hydroxy 3 methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase activity in cultured mammalian cells. Chemistry & Physics of Lipids 47(3): 187-208, 1988

Cellular sterol ester synthesis in plants is performed by an enzyme (phospholipid:sterol acyltransferase) different from the yeast and mammalian acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferases. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280(41): 34626-34634, 2005

Progesterone synthesis by luteinized human granulosa cells in culture: the role of de novo sterol synthesis and lipoprotein-carried sterol. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 54(2): 367-373, 1982

Inhibitors of sterol synthesis studies of in vitro effects of 27 carbon 15 oxygenated sterols on sterol synthesis in cell free homogenates of rat liver. Journal of Biological Chemistry 257(5): 2412-2419, 1982

Inhibitors of sterol synthesis. Chemical syntheses, properties and effects of 4,4-dimethyl-15-oxygenated sterols on sterol synthesis and on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in cultured mammalian cells. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 47(3): 187-207, 1988

Enzymatic synthesis of bioinformatically predicted microcin C-like compounds encoded by diverse bacteria. Mbio 5(3): E01059-14, 2015

Sterol synthesis. High-pressure liquid chromatography of C27 sterol precursors of cholesterol. Journal of Lipid Research 20(5): 681-685, 1979

Application of sterol synthesis inhibitors to investigate the sterol requirements of protozoa and plants. Biochemical Society Transactions 18(1): 63-65, 1990

C-4 sterol demethylation enzymes distinguish bacterial and eukaryotic sterol synthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115(23): 5884-5889, 2018

Synthesis and Biological Activity of Sterol 14α-Demethylase and Sterol C24-Methyltransferase Inhibitors. Molecules 23(7), 2018

Sterol synthesis high pressure liquid chromatography of 27 carbon sterol precursors of cholesterol. Journal of Lipid Research 20(5): 68- 681-685, 1979

Inhibitors of delta24(25) sterol methyltransferase block sterol synthesis and cell proliferation in Pneumocystis carinii. Antimicrobial Agents and ChemoTherapy 41(7): 1428-1432, 1997

Inhibition of sterol synthesis by D5-sterols in a sterol auxotroph of yeast defective in oxidosqualene cyclase and cytochrome P-450. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 263: 844-50, 1988

Synthesis of the fatty sterol bound protein for a new sterol antibody. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 10(4): 357-359, Feb 21, 2000

Synthesis of fici sterol the 1st natural sterol with 23 ethyl substitution. Tetrahedron Letters 21(17): 1603-1606, 1980