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Stimulation of ribosomal RNA gene promoter by transcription factor Sp1 involves active DNA demethylation by Gadd45-NER pathway



Stimulation of ribosomal RNA gene promoter by transcription factor Sp1 involves active DNA demethylation by Gadd45-NER pathway



Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1859(8): 953-963



The well-studied Pol II transcription factor Sp1 has not been investigated for its regulatory role in rDNA transcription. Here, we show that Sp1 bound to specific sites on rDNA and localized into the nucleoli during the G1 phase of cell cycle to activate rDNA transcription. It facilitated the recruitment of Pol I pre-initiation complex and impeded the binding of nucleolar remodeling complex (NoRC) to rDNA resulting in the formation of euchromatin active state. More importantly, Sp1 also orchestrated the site-specific binding of Gadd45a-nucleotide excision repair (NER) complex resulting in active demethylation and transcriptional activation of rDNA. Interestingly, knockdown of Sp1 impaired rDNA transcription due to reduced engagement of the Gadd45a-NER complex and hypermethylation of rDNA. Thus, the present study unveils a novel role of Sp1 in rDNA transcription involving promoter demethylation.

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Accession: 058905964

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PMID: 27156884

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbagrm.2016.05.002


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