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Susceptibility of Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to Monkeypox Virus: a Low Dose Prospective Model for Monkeypox and Smallpox Disease

Susceptibility of Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to Monkeypox Virus: a Low Dose Prospective Model for Monkeypox and Smallpox Disease

Plos one 10(7): E0131742

ISSN/ISBN: 1932-6203

PMID: 26147658

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131742

Although current nonhuman primate models of monkeypox and smallpox diseases provide some insight into disease pathogenesis, they require a high titer inoculum, use an unnatural route of infection, and/or do not accurately represent the entire disease course. This is a concern when developing smallpox and/or monkeypox countermeasures or trying to understand host pathogen relationships. In our studies, we altered half of the test system by using a New World nonhuman primate host, the common marmoset. Based on dose finding studies, we found that marmosets are susceptible to monkeypox virus infection, produce a high viremia, and have pathological features consistent with smallpox and monkeypox in humans. The low dose (48 plaque forming units) required to elicit a uniformly lethal disease and the extended incubation (preclinical signs) are unique features among nonhuman primate models utilizing monkeypox virus. The uniform lethality, hemorrhagic rash, high viremia, decrease in platelets, pathology, and abbreviated acute phase are reflective of early-type hemorrhagic smallpox.

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Accession: 058946170

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